Female Contraceptives

Families can be happy, work at best and generate good incomes to support them.  However, with rising economic stains and unpredictable future for the families, there is need to control the size of families.  Long a go, people would own as many children as their fertility rate would allow but today, the standard families have one to three children with the majority having two children.  This is due to the increased cost of living, educational programmes, family conflict and the desire to have manageable family size. There are different types of birth control measures that are currently in use.  The type of contraceptive measure one takes depends on personal interest, spousal agreement, and health status of the mother (Russell, 2003). Some of the birth control measures include the female condom, male condom, the sponge today, the oral contraceptive pill, the vasectomy, tubal ligations, abstinence and biological methods.

The birth control sponge, the so called the sponge today is a birth control is a foam sponge that contains spermicide and is usually fitted into the vagina for the purpose of preventing pregnancy.  It is said to be convenient and safe for use by different women as well as its being easy to use.  It cost is also low like the current market price is 9 to 15 per three sponge pack. The sponge works by releasing spermicide that prevents the movement of sperm to the uterus since it covers the cervix.  The sponge today is effective for women who have not had their first delivery if used as per the prescriptions it is 91 effective. It is the most commonly use by women in the U.S (John, 2000).

Although the sponge can be used by many women, it may be difficult to use at times especially if they have an allergy with sulfa related drugs, or they have an infection in the reproductive tract.  The sponge may also not be used during the menstrual flow or if one has procured an abortion, miscarriage or given birth, in the recent past.

The birth control pill is designed to be taken orally on a daily basis to control pregnancy. This is a safe, convenient and effective to use if one does not forget to take the pill any day. The cost today is about, 15-50 which is affordable every month.  This type of pill works on the principle of hormones that are released in the body to prevent ovulation thus no pregnancy may occur while the pill is in use. In case fertilization occurs, implantation may not take place since the pill thin the uterine walls impairing implantation (Grimley, Lee, 1997). The pill is 100 effective if taken as prescribed, although it could be interfered with by some antibiotics and some other medicines taken orally.

The combination pill is said to protect pelvic inflammatory diseases associated with infertility. It also reduces menstrual pain and results to lighter periods as well as reduces chance for an attack by cervical cancer.  The possible side effects include bleeding between periods, vomiting or even breast tenderness most of which clear in three months after the initial use. The pill may also change the cycle so that after use, it may take about 2 to 3 months for the normal cycle to return but for the irregular cycles, it may take longer for them to get the period back after stopping use.

The female condoms are very effective if they are used correctly.  The female condom is put in vagina before the start of intercourse, and withdrawn carefully after since it collects semen from the male sex partner, which can spill upon mishandling. The advantage that comes along worth the use of the condoms is that it offers double protection against pregnancy and against STDs and HIV. The effectiveness ranges from 80 to 100 when using the condom.  There some risks associated with the use of condom which include irritation, while some partners find it uncomfortable to use (Brick, 2003).

A condom is used only once and must be worn every time people have intercourse if they want to protect themselves against STDS as well as pregnancy.

Spermicides are also other forms of birth control which include the use of sperm killing reagents in cream form to prevent pregnancy. The diaphragm is also another available birth control measure that is used to cover the cervix just before intercourse and should not be withdrawn immediately after intercourse but after 6-8 hours to ensure maximum safety.  However, they may be irritating while some people may be allergic to it. Other methods include emergency contraceptives that are taken especially when one is within the ovulation season of their period and they are not on a pill.  It should not be taken frequently because it can affect the system.  Hormone injections, like the Depo- Provera that are injection on the buttocks or upper arm each taking 90 days before the next (Russell, 2003).  It is very effective with 100 efficiency. The implant, the skin patch, IUD methods are also in existence and useful.

In conclusion, birth control measure should be take seriously especially in developing countries to control population explosions.  If users develop complications, they should seek advice from their medical advisers.

Traumatic Stress Disorder

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, is an anxiety disorder precipitated by exposure to an even which involves actual or threatened death or serious injury, or threat to the persons integrity of self or others that causes intense fear, helplessness or horror (as cited-in Nutt Ballenger, 2003, p.65). PTSD can be divided into three classes, depending on the duration of  symptoms Acute (1-3 months), Chronic (more than 6 months) and Delayed (6 months after the trauma) (Nutt Ballenger, 2003,  p.65). Symptoms that can be observed in an individual who is suffering from PTSD may include the following insomnia or difficulty in sleeping, startled response, sudden anger outburst, inability to recall trauma, difficulty in concentrating, restricted range of emotions and hyper vigilance. However, appearance of symptoms vary from every individual depending on the traumatic event that occurred (Nutt Ballenger, 2003). Studies show that most individuals who naturally recover from PTSD are victims of nonsexual assault (Nutt Ballenger, 2003). Developmental factors in personal vulnerability may trigger PTSD. Individuals who have undergone early separation from parents, anxiety or depression prior the traumatic event that have caused their stress and have a family history of anxiety or depression have bigger chances in having PTSD after a traumatic experience (Nutt  Ballenger, 2003).

The study of PTSD started during World War II. The war provided the opportunity to study and document the various reactions and effects of intense trauma to soldiers and camp inmates (Scaer, 2007, p.64). The study also investigated  the subjects capacity to tolerate stress in the war period.  The Vietnam War ignited the interest of researchers regarding the effects of traumatic stress. In 1980, Kardiner attempted to file the list of various symptoms that was observed and related to trauma into a syndrome, thus, the name Post Traumatic Stress Disorder was born. With this new accomplishment, traumatized young children and women that were ignored before, were finally given the attention they needed (Scaer, 2007).  Currently, there are still revisions in the definition of  PTSD because of the additional clinical features and clarifications regarding the associated symptoms. Discoveries were made possible due to the increasing number of individuals suffering from traumatic events that results to stress. As more researches were completed, the disorder covered different scopes in the mental health field of the human being.
Individuals suffering from PTSD are likely to undergo difficulties in social functioning. Emotional detachment and withdrawal from people and surroundings are observed in most cases. They feel and act indifferent to people they were close before. Aside from these symptoms, an individual may also experience interpersonal difficulties, such as avoidance of sexual contact, sudden mood swings or unresponsiveness to their loved ones.  A sudden loss of a loved one to an individual may also affect his or her balanced nature and start the PTSD cycle. Researchers found out that those who suffer from PTSD have higher possibility rates and risks of suicide (Nutt  Ballenger, 2003, p.78).

In every individual, coping is necessary when it comes to dealing with stress. The ability of a person to cope with stress reflects his or her mental health. A person with good coping skills will be able to identify and determine solutions for problems while a person with poor coping skills will not be able to do so. Thus his or her homeostasis will be disrupted, leading to PTSD.

Research Proposal

The budding of a child from the innocence of childhood to the maturity of an adult can be a complicated phase for many. An important factor that plays a very significant role throughout a persons life is their sexual behavior. After the mass commercialization of every product imaginable and available to consumers through print advertisements or TV advertisements, the idea of sex is being marketed to these young children almost on a daily basis. This influence is not only limited to print or TV but the internet has also started playing an important role in being a medium which provides access to teenagers and young adults to explicit content. Responsible adults of the society and the Government should make sure that those affected by sexual harassment are given proper rehabilitation facilities (Gilgun, n.d) and that perpetrators who have committed such heinous crimes are punished.

Statement of problem
Many young adults become sex offenders as they grow up and some fall victim to prey like sex addiction. Also, due to exposure to explicit content on porn sites and other inappropriate material on the web these juveniles fall prey to blackmailers, sex offenders, rapists and manipulators. In girls, this could lead to unwanted pregnancy.

Purpose of the study
The purpose of undertaking this study is to predict sexual behavior in teenagers due to the kind of exposure they get from experiencing peer pressure about sex at school to movies and internet that are all filled with subtle messages about sex and how wonderful it is when the consequences of their actions are not even fully clear to the teenagers undertaking this activity and how it impacts their life ahead and also to explore what rehabilitation and recovery facilities may be provided to teenagers who have being harassed.

The relationship between the exposure to sex related content and sexual habits of teenagers is positive and correlated.

Methods and Procedures
The method used in this study was to conduct some literature review on the topic and also gather responses through teenagers and young adults through a small survey. The questions posed to them constituted of topics ranging from the influence of the media to any personal experiences they might have encountered. Also, peer pressure was an important factor included to see the effects of how many teenagers engage in sex to fit in or submit to their peers demands.

Variables used
The variables used in this questionnaire were teenagers and young adults who answered the questionnaires on the topic of how they think sexually explicit content or subtle hints at selling sex to youngsters through advertisements, movies, TV shows and even billboards.

Some impromptu personal interviews were also taken to see if people are biased in their opinion when communicating spontaneously vs. if they are given more time to choose and think their options.

Limitations and delimitations
The limitation in this study comes out in the form of bias. The respondents in order to not let the interviewer or survey taker make judgments about them or relate the responses to their experiences subconsciously may give well thought out or morally fair answers rather than what they actually believe or think. Also since the scope of the study is limited to predicting sexual behavior in teenagers, factors such as puberty, violence, infatuation and internet play a stronger role in eliciting responses and decisions rather than rationality.

Significance of the study
The significance of this study is that it will help point out the factors which can help us understand teenage psychology and behaviors better in order make policies or take collective community action to protect our children and rehabilitate and bring back to life those who have suffered.

This research paper aims to look at the sexual behavior in teenagers and how these sexual behaviors are encouraged in teenagers through media, internet and pop culture. Teenagers often neglect practices of safe sex. They indulge in drug abuse and alcohol and those who are routinely exposed to sexually explicit content have a higher tendency to initiate sexual behaviors. Also, those teenagers who have been subject to sexual harassment or assault at an early age can replicate the actions to take revenge from society and breed crime. The impact of selling sex through commercialization and disregard for moral and ethical values also contributes to over active sexual drive in teenagers. Lastly, the matter of female pregnancy especially the alarming rate at which it is rising in US as compared to other developed countries and the highest rate in black teenagers is a matter of concern for the society and health sector at large.

Predictions about Teen Sexual Behavior
When children grow up to step into the adult phase of their lives they are faced with perhaps the most difficult situations in their lives. They are presented with new ideas, new peers, social and peer pressure and their introduction to puberty. A lot of teenagers face the emotions of infatuation, obsession, becoming cool and doing something that would establish their reputation in front of their friends. In this age of media and mass commercialization, teenagers are exposed to sex in all forms available. It is seen in movies, TV channels, TV shows, internet, music industry and even cartoons like Simpsons where sexual references are not uncommon.

It is surprising to see that while 58 of girls studying in 8th to 11th grade have faced some sort of sexual harassment occasionally or in some cases almost daily boys are also being subject to sexual harassment (Carney, 2007). The reason for such outcomes or trend seen in recent years can be the extreme exposure to sex in our culture especially to kids at an inappropriate age. This incompatibility can confuse these children who are in the process of becoming mature and distort their perceptions of sexual behavior and hinder their normal and healthy development process. Exposure to explicit content can be in the form of visual content such as is common on billboards, TV, cartoons and internet. It can also be of verbal content. A child whose parents curse and swear or use sexually explicit language and exhibit violent behavior towards each other or the society at large is subject to take the impact of such exposure and replicate such behavior when heshe grows up to be a teenager and later in their life.
Perhaps, the greatest impact is of personal experience in predicting the sexual behavior of teenagers and that is usually when a person has been subject to incest or any other form of sexual and physical harassment. Such an individual becomes bitter and rebellious towards the society and takes revenge by doing those very actions and deriving satisfaction from the pain inflicted on others as a compensation for their suffering.

A recent research has linked the race, age and weight of adolescents to their sexual behaviors in case of girls. Some interesting findings that came in spotlight included but are not restricted to the fact that over weight and sexually active girls and underweight girls do not practice safe sex. Latino girls were most likely to engage in risky sexual behavior including having greater than four partners, not practicing safe sex and rampant use of alcohol (Nauert, 2009)

This finding indicates that as opposed to generalizing all teenagers exhibiting rogue sexual appetites sexual behavior in teenagers can greatly differ based on their geographical location, their environment, age and even gender. Important findings that help predict teenage sexual behavior include that, teenagers who watch sexually explicit content more often than their counterparts are likely to engage and initiate sexual intercourse earlier (Collins et al., 2004) (Also see Exhibit 1) Furthermore, the impact of verbal reference to sexual activities is the same as visual impact in teenagers leading them to become sexually active at an earlier stage in their adolescence. However, it is imperative to know that if teens are shown movies or educated about the practices of disadvantages of having sex earlier or without safe practices it can put a positive impact and create awareness among them and influence their sexual behavior.

Recently, the internet has proved to be yet another medium through which teenagers who are still in the phase of development and are excited by puberty and the various opportunities to socialize and go to parties, meet new partners and become equal to their peers is present, the access to sexually explicit content such as images, videos, pornography and the latest addition to the list social networking websites present a great danger of eliciting harmful sexual behavior. In a recent study it was found that those teenagers who use the internet and social networking websites were subject to online sexual harassment such as unwanted requests to converse about sex, provide personal information, sexual solicitation or requests to do something sexual. 33 reported online harassment including the highest percentage on instant messaging (43) and chat rooms (32). (Ybarra  Mitchell, 2008) Such consequences have made internet a bane in some cases instead of a boon with negative impacts on not only the mental health but physical development of a child as more and more people suffer from complex about their bodies and abilities due to sexual references and discrimination.

Sex at an early age for some can be damaging to moral and ethical values along with inflicting psychological problems. About 3 million teenagers contract a sexually transmitted disease such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and even AIDS. Most agree that teenagers tend to be reckless in their behavior, and unprotected sex is just one of a host of risky behaviors in which they engage. But even for those who are always careful, accidents can happen and contraceptives can fail. Moreover, some teenagers are exploited or coerced into having sex and thus have little control over contraception (cited in Besharov  Gardiner, n.d)

As exhibit 2 portrays that those engage in sex and risky behavior include marijuana, drugs and alcohol that further adds to the problem of active sex drive in teenagers.

Feral children like Genie who have had no contact with the outside world for 13 years of their life and confined to a solitary room where no auditory signals or visual signals could reach rendered this child completely different from normal teenagers. Genie could not stand erect and unable to even communicate effectively with words. She was fed baby food, cereals and eggs to keep her alive. (Curtiss, 1977) This kind of treatment rendered her completely isolated from other human beings where she was unable to communicate or understand normal human emotions or any sort of sexual desires or tendencies. Another important factor which has influenced sexual behavior in teenagers is music. According to a research article published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, April 2009, Brian Primack made the statement that in a sample of adolescents listening to lyrics of a song that feature sexually explicit lyrics the tendency to engage in pre-coital activities and sexual intercourse was higher. This finding is a cause of concern and demands educational intervention because such activities by female teenagers which result in teenage pregnancies are a matter of public health concern. The findings of this research clearly indicate that sexual messages in media may be risky and dangerous for early teenage activities (cited in Nyholm, 2009) such as involvement in sex and related risky behavior as described in exhibit 2.

Communication gap with parents can lead to increased risky behavior in adolescents. Teenagers who can openly communicate with their parents about sex and parents who expose their teens to sexual information at an appropriate age and maturity level can decrease the risk of their teenage children being exposed to reckless sexual behavior.

Peer pressure in teenagers is also an important reason for engaging in sexual intercourse at an early age. Those teenagers who are popular in school or boast about their sexual triumphs create a desire in other children to be like them and experience sex even if their minds and bodies are not yet ready for experience. Discussion of explicit content among both genders increases the tendency to engage in sexual activities which may have dire consequences such as rape, manipulation and abuse of drugs and alcohol not to mention the risks of teenage pregnancy in case of neglecting safe sex practices.

Across adolescence, teenagers begin to look up to their peers and friends for support rather than their family and spend considerable amount of time with opposite-sex peers and the time spent with family decreases substantially. Teenagers begin to use each other for entertainment and intimacy and this marks an individuals shift to attachment with peers versus attachment with family members (Florsheim, 2003) This clarifies that the more a person spends time with the opposite sex the urge to communicate intimacy and sexually increases in a person and often culminates at an improper age in early teenage where teenagers do not fully experience the pleasure of engaging in sexual activities and take part in sexual acts merely for fun or to increase their reputation in front of their peers. Only in USA, teenagers have to pay heavy costs of healthcare that is why most teenagers whether male or female avoid going to the doctor and taking medical help because of the costs associated with healthcare (Table 1)

Sexuality occupies a special place in the lives of most people living in Westernsociety. Individuals are curious about the topic, and will at times exert unusualeffort to find answers to their questions. The trends in sexual behavior differ according to not only age and gender but also race (Table 2) as black and Hispanic teenagers are assumed to be more reckless in their sexual behavior and use drugs and alcohol as well. Anyone familiar with the tattered, soilededges of references to sex in the card catalogs of university libraries can gaugefairly accurately the popularity of such information. Sex sells--witness the relatively recent surge in the number of articles and reports on sexual behavior inperiodicals and newspapers (Byrne  Fisher, 1983).

Lastly, the problem of teenage pregnancy among females is of considerable importance since three quarters of a million females between the ages of 15-19 become pregnant each year. Out of all these pregnancies 82 are unplanned. Black female teenagers have the highest teen pregnancy rate and 29 terminate their pregnancies through abortion. The teenage pregnancy rates are twice as high in other developed countries (Lowen, n.d). This alarming rate has now become a matter of public health concern since taxpayer dollars are used to pay for the increase population in terms of benefits and other services such as social care and adoption. Teenage females who become pregnant have to face pressure and in some cases harassment from society and even friends and family and such teens face isolation and become victims of depression. Female teenagers may be forced to drop out of school due to external pressures and choose dangerous methods such as abortion instead of adoption and seeking help from social service. Female teenagers who become mothers of children out of wedlock face enormous difficulties if they decide to raise the child alone due to societal pressures to raise the child as a single parent. Such mothers and children become victim of poverty as they may have to drop out of school.

The Add Health survey shows that teenagers who are sexually active are 21 of the time likely to drop out of high school before graduating as compared to those who abstain from sex at 8.6. It further shows that teenagers who abstained from engaging in sexual intercourse until they reached a majority age of 18 were twice as likely to graduate from college at 15.8 as compared to sexually active teenagers who had initiated sex before the age of 18 at a mere 7.4.

Teenage sexual behavior can be controlled through awareness and education. Abstinence is an important part of sex education in teaching teenagers and young adults about safe sex. 90 parents believe that abstinence education should be given to stop teenagers from engaging in sexual activities until they have finished at least high school and their minds have developed and matured. 84 parents think that sex should not be allowed until an individual is married because sexual activities are not only unethical and impact a persons psychology but it also exposes juvenile teenagers to the harms of sexually transmitted diseases. Such factors are not given a thought by teenagers who have an active sex drive and the consequences of engaging in sexual activities without the full knowledge of its consequences can be harmful. Social science data shows that teenagers who abstain from sex are less likely to be depressed and commit suicide, to have children out of unwanted pregnancies and live in poverty or welfare dependence from adults. Also, it is interesting to note that teenagers who abstain from sex have longer lasting relationships and marriages as adults (Rector  Johnson, 2005) Teenagers who abstain from sex are also subject to fare better in terms of academic performance as they will be subject to less emotional complications as compared to sexually active teenagers. Teenagers who are likely to abstain from sex also possess character traits such as perseverance, resistance to peer pressure and more respect for society norms and moral values. Possession of such character traits in abstinent teens highlights success factors for future life.

Thus, teenage sexual behavior is influenced and can be predicted by many ways including the communication gap, transition from being a child to adult and romantic relationships. The need to fit in with peers as well as internet and popular media have put a lot of influence and subtle indications towards sex in forms of not only TV shows but movies and cartoons have led to children being exposed to sexual behavior at a very tender, immature and early age which can complicate life for them in later years as they could be exploited, raped, manipulated and suffer from physical or psychological harm.

Fetal Sex Selection

Is fetal sex selection harmful to society

Fetal sex selection entails choosing the sex of a child one would like to have. It is done through selective abortion, preimplantation genetic diagnosis or sperm sorting whichever the technique used sex selection is debatable as a section of the society views it as harmful while others view it as beneficial. This work reviews literature regarding whether fetal sex selection is harmful to the society. It is notable that sex selection is a form of sexism it promotes inequality and high sex rations. It is also viewed that sex selection is good for medical reasons and family balancing. As such, this work concludes that guidelines should be laid down on when sex selection should be done.

Burmganer (2007) defines sex selection as application of medical techniques in choosing an offsprings sex. Among the sex selection techniques include sperm sorting, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and selective abortion (Burmganer, 2007, p 1289).  Fetal sex selection can be done either before pregnancy or during pregnancy. With development of technology and more understanding of human biology, it is now possible to select for the sex of a baby depending on an individuals preference. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) basically involves screening the embryo for the preferred sex before the embryo is implanted. Sex selection is also done through abortion which is an older technique. In this case, the growing fetus is screened for sex using techniques such as amniocentesis or ultrasound testing. Once a couple identifies through the various testing methods that the woman is carrying a fetus of a particular sex that they may not be of preference, they may decide to abort the fetus.

There are many reasons as to why people select for certain sex. These range from health-related reasons to cultural reasons. It is for instance known that most Asian cultures prefer the male child to the girl child (Wertz  Fletcher, 1998). As far as culture is concerned, there are some cultures which prefer boys than girl child for such reasons as seeing girls as extra burden to the community. The boy child in most Asian countries gains preference over the girl child as it is viewed that boys have economic, hereditary or even cultural value than girls. Girls on the other hand are viewed as bearing great financial implications in terms of raising them. As such, girls have been selected against through either aborting the fetus or killing the infant (Liu  Rose, 1996). There are also personal reasons while selecting for any particular sex. For instance, a couple who may have several boys with no girl child may prefer sex selection in an effort to get a girl child. In case of health related reasons, there are certain sex-linked conditions such as hemophilia A and Duchenne muscular dystrophy that seem to affect a certain gender only (males in the above conditions). In an attempt to end the suffering associated with such conditions along the family line, a couple may decide to select for the sex that is not affected by the disease.

The above issues are debatable and they raise moral and ethical questions. This paper presents a review of literature on the question of whether sex selection is harmful to the society.

Literature review
There are two sides to the issue of fetal selection with one side bringing harmful outcomes in the society whereas the other one presenting beneficial outcomes. Burmganer (2007) explores the effects of sex selection in the Asian society especially in India and China and identifies that sex selection results into great disparities in sex ratios. Burmganer cites that sex ratio in India as per the 2001 census was 933 females to 1000 males. It is also worrying that the sex ratio disparity is increasing in China with 116.6 males 100 females being born in 2000 compared to a lower ratio of 113.3 males 100 females in 1990. The rising trend in sex selection in the Indian society however can be justifiable since the female child is associated with economic burdens as the culture requires that the bride pays the dowry to the bridegroom. The dowry price and the costs associated with weddings in the Indian society may be very high for some economically unstable families. It is for instance estimated that dowry costs may reach up to U.S. 35,000 which is too high for families that are earning about U.S.  3,500 annually. That being the case, women especially from the poor families in India select against the female child to avoid future agony. Burmganer (2007) indicates that dowry may result to the death of the bride more so by immolation if for instance they fail to pay in time or the amount is not as per the husbands expectations.

Viewing the issue of sex selection from a global perspective, Sharma (2007) sees sex selection through the various available technologies as a way eliminating one gender (in her case the female gender). Sharma (p 1744) argues that with assisted reproductive technology which has facilitated sex preference more than 100 million females have died on a global scale making her refer to sex selection as a mass gendercide. The greatest contributor countries to the mass gendercide are the Asian countries that have a patriarchal culture that favors males.

It is not a universal phenomenon that sex selection discriminates against females while favoring males. In fact, this preference is more restricted to the Asian countries with the western world selecting for particular sex depending on different views. In Canada for instance, sex selection does not seem to favor either sex with sex preference being mainly based on the need to balance the family. This is an example of ensuring equality along gender line as most Western families would prefer at least an equal representation of each sex among their children (Dickens, 2002). The argument that the Western families do not show sex preference is controversial if one were to go with a study carried out by Steinbacher and Gilroy (1990) on sex preference among young adults. Steinbacher and Gilroy found out that most undergraduates preferred having a boy child as their first born regardless of the race, sex or religious backgrounds of the individuals. Burmganer (2007) also notes that most American women (94) and men (81) would prefer to have their first born child being a male.

Sex selection can be very beneficial in cases where there is fear of a sex-linked disease such as hemophilia. In a sex-linked disease, the disease in question is passed down the family tree along a particular sex. In hemophilia A for instance, a hemophilic mother always transfers the hemophilia gene to her male children whereas the female child may only become a carrier of the disease at the worst instance. A hemophilic individual suffers from recurrent bleeding and severe arthritis.  Luckily, Boyle and Savulescu (2003) indicate that it is possible to detect hemophilia A during prenatal diagnosis. As such, a couple who wants to eradicate the suffering brought about by hemophilia A may select for girls (who are not carriers) only. The same argument for sex selection sets in when discussing the other sex-linked conditions. Sex selection for medical reasons is therefore a good means of ensuring that children experience a good health and can access a variety of available opportunities.

Sex selection for medical reasons has been a largely accepted view in most societies.  There is however fear that sex selection could lead a slippery slope with sex selection being misused for sexism purposes as well as cosmetic purposes. In such a case, Wertz and Fletcher, (1998) views that selecting for particular sex is likely to cause an imbalance in sex ratio. Such has been the case among the Indians and the Chinese. It is also viewed that sex selection would alter the birth order which would translate to inequality along gender. The birth order argument is however contended by Dickens (2002) who argues that a couple should always be allowed to select for the second or subsequent children as a way of addressing the potential inequality. This would in the long-term mean that a certain gender is discriminated against and is unevenly distributed in the general population.

By allowing a woman to choose the sex of their child, autonomy is greatly promoted. Puri and Nachtigall (2009) found out that many sex selection services providers regard sex selection as a means of empowering women. They observed that most physicians would offer sex selection services to couples as a means of helping them make well informed decisions regarding their family planning practices. Through sex selection, a couple would be able to create a balance in their family constitution as desired. As such, these authors argue that abortions resulting from unwanted pregnancies would be reduced whereas the possibility of having some children neglected or abused due to dislike minimized. Rhodes (2006) views that when a couple is allowed to select for a particular sex, then they are likely to give the child the best possible care which would lead to the child living a good life without being neglected. This is unlike when a couple relies on trial and error method and the resultant child may not be of preferred sex thus they may tend to neglect the child. With the current sex selection technologies however, it is feared that not only would it be possible to have a child of the desired sex but in addition it would be able to incorporate desired characteristics in the child.

The ethicality of sex selection is also brought in the question of sex selection. Sex selected is largely viewed as an ethical issue especially when the sex selection technologies are brought aboard. Neil (2007) argues that while it is a moral issue as regards whether an embryo should be destroyed, it is no less a moral issue as regards failure to begin the life of the embryo. This means that whether a couple chooses to use abortion selection or the more sophisticated preimplantation genetic diagnosis, the issue will still revolve around either terminating a life or failing to begin a life.

Sexism is associated with sex selection especially in cases where the male is the preference sex. As a result, Neil (2007) claims that the high disparity in sex distribution gives birth to violent societies. Neil specifically cites a sexist society that is predominated by males that has a higher likelihood of experiencing crime and antisocial activities since the young males in the society are unattached. For instance, Asian countries such as Pakistan and India have high sex ratios predominated by males and as such they have and still experience conflict and volatility. Neil argues that such wars are among the means of restoring the high sex ratios.

As much as couples in the western society may cite that they prefer sex selection for the purposes of ensuring family balance, there is the potential malice of simply discriminating against one gender. It is noted that most couples in the West will go for sex selection when they intend to have a single child. As such, they make preference for a certain gender depending on whatever reasons they may find comfortable to them. Neil (2007) highlights that there are some women who choose a female child based on the view that they will develop better relationship and closeness with the daughter. It is a general observation that although sex preference does not bring a major disparity in the sex ratios in the Western world, preference for the girl child is slightly higher. Neil sees the greatest danger with sex selection in the West as having the sexism mind. The argument is that the choice of sex of the child in the Western society is based on the view that that particular gender harbors specific psychological dispositions, which is itself sexism.

Critical appraisal
The above review of literature has many implications regarding sex selection. In the first place there is no doubt that the issue of sex selection is an ethical debate. In addition, sex selection is a prevalent issue which has cultural relativism at the center. Whereas one society may tolerate sex preference for a certain gender, based on arguments that are right to the society, other societies strongly oppose the practice. The sex selection debate is exacerbated by the advent of sophisticated medical technologies that are able to determine the sex of a child not only during pregnancy but also prior to. Either way, the implications of sex selection must be felt regardless of the sex selection technique applied.

Using the evidence from cultures that have practiced sex selection, one can only expect even higher sex ratios in the future unless a proper measure is taken. As much as the Chinese and the Indian societies may support their practice of boy preference, the fact is that their own communities are to suffer most. The high number of conflicts arising from a male biased society as indicated in the literature review does not only affect the general society. Such a society can rarely experience economic prosperity with instability. These findings show that sex selection has the potential to result to an unstable society. But as much as sex selection may be condemned from the perspective of the harms that it causes, there may not be any near hope that this trend will end among the Asian countries. The practice is rooted deeply in their cultures and it would only call for a change in the culture (which is obviously hard) for one to expect change in the way sex selection is viewed.

Extending preference for a particular gender is a sexism practice that only promotes inequality. Although the above literature seems to portray the Asian practice of selection against females as the main form of gender inequality, the West are camouflaging in the name of family balancing.

It is not appropriate to rule out the possibility of sex selection due to the benefits that it holds. The advancements in medicine that are able to screen for fatal genetic conditions are great contributors to the move towards sex selection. It is logical and ethically correct to allow couples decide to choose the sex of the child if the otherwise selected against child would only have ended suffering. In fact Burmganer (2007) states the Americans of South Asian heritage hold the same high preference for males just as any Asian has in their native land. Sex selection can be viewed positively as it can help in balancing the population in terms of sex composition. The same balance can also be achieved in a family. In a family or society that is predominated by males, sex selection may favor females thus bringing a balance in this composition.

Although the implications of disparities of sex ratio differences are not noted in the above literature, it is possible to foresee a situation whereby the general population would decrease as people alter the natural balance in sex distribution. For instance, a society that has a disproportionately low number of females is no doubt bound to have a reduction in the reproductive rate in the long run. In addition, it is possible to increase social ills such as women trafficking or rape as the number of the available women is disproportional to the available men.

The lack of credible instances where sex selection has spilled over to malpractices does not rule out the possibility. Sex selection has the likelihood of being used by malicious individuals to select for other discriminatory traits. It would not be a wonder to hear that a couple selected for a baby (of either sex) with certain IQ characteristics or certain skin color in the name of sex selection. At least this should be appraised with the turn of sex selection from the basis of medical risks to the now common family balancing in the west. Individuals who will not afford the more sophisticated sex selection technologies will have disadvantaged children who will face unfair competition from the better selected children.

The practice of sex selection among the Indians based on cultural practice is not justifiable. Need to avoid dowry expenses should not cause girls to be aborted and as such, sex selection in this case is a pure sexism issue. Why is it that a society where males provide the dowry does not select against the male child to avoid such expenses Why is it that in these societies, females are not selected for as a way of using them later to amass wealth through bride price Such questions should be raised against the practice of sex selection among the Indians.

It is not easy to draw a conclusion on whether sex selection should be practiced or not seeing that there are reasonable views on why it should and why it should not be done. However, every society ought to draw the limits in which sex selection should operate in order to maintain a balance of the benefits and the potential harms.

The debate on sex selection is a real issue in the society and has been in practice for quite a long time. The developments of medical technologies that can facilitate sex selection seem to lay the ground for the debate. Sex selection has made it possible to eradicate genetic diseases in families and this has been generally acceptable. However, some cultures like the Asian cultures have been preferring males to females and thus practicing sexism, the West has been doing sex selection in the name of family balancing. It is however still evident that there is an element of sexism in the same. It is also possible to cause great differences in sex ratios with sex selection with women being largely discriminated against. This debate does not cease to be controversial especially when a couples autonomy is brought in. it would only be wise for every society to weigh the benefits against the ills and then formulate guidelines regarding sex selection.

The significance of melody for the deaf

Melody involves the way sound is arranged to form musical patterns. It may involve word arrangement to form a certain sequence. Melody indicates succession events and thus the events are arranged following a certain order.  In order to attain melody, there are several factors which should take place. There should be some change in the sequencing. The duration of interval between sequential events should change. Pitches also change during succession of linear events. Melody is mostly shown by the interaction of musical patterns. This occurs where there is change of events. The elements of melody include pitch and quality. The quality of melody is defined by loudness, sound texture and resonance. Musical phrases are concerned in forming melodies. The musical phrases which form melodies may be several or can even be one. Repetition of the musical phrases denotes the occurrence of melody. The repetition may occur in the inset of a song. The melodic motion can be used to describe melody. Other factors which describe melodies include pitch interval. Sound is the medium of music and involves arrangement of words in a sequential order. Music has various elements. Melody is governed by pitch which is a musical element. Other elements of music include texture, timbre and rhythm. Deaf people communicate to hearing people by the use of tonal expression. They get words as they come out of the lips.

Melody differs from other qualities of music. The essential elements of music include harmony, dynamics, melody and rhythm. Music composition takes in to consideration various factors. There are the fundamentals in composing music. Music is really defined by considering the essential elements which include harmony, dynamics, melody and rhythm. Music soul is provided by melody. Harmony expression is blended by rhythm. Dynamics elaborates on the tempo or speed of a phrase. Song is composed by combining these essential elements. Melody involves successive events or musical tones. It also involves successive pitches. Melody is characterized by various factors such as movement, shape and range. In music, there are both the highest and lowest tones. The distance in between these tones defines the range. Range can either be high, low or medium according to singers. There are scenarios when melody concentrates on few given notes. This is said to have narrow range.

Conversely to this, there are occasions when notes are shifted from low to high pitches. This gives a wide range. This may take a couple of steps on the musical scale. Melody has a distinctive shape. This denotes the direction. Melody shape gives the manner in which the notes would behavior if they were arranged in a certain sequence as in the case of a geometrical line. Wavelike shape is formed in the case of narrow range. Upward shape occurs due to ascend of notes. There are two factors which define movement disjunct or conjunct. Conjunct occurs in the case where melody is arranged in a stepwise manner. Disjunct on the other hand, occurs when there is no natural connection. In this case, the pitches leap from one to another.

The parameters which give melody structure are its intensity and length. This takes the same scenario as the sentences included in language. Some examples in this case include climax and the cadence. A musical phrase has an end which has some features. This musical ending is what is referred to as cadence. Climax occurs when there is high intensity.

Notes and chords can be played simultaneously. The relation portrayed by chords and notes when played simultaneously denote the harmony in the musical phrases. When chords and notes are arranged in successive manner, they form harmonic patterns. Intervals can either be harmonic or melodic. Intervals that are sequenced and are linear are known to be melodic. On the other hand, those intervals which sound at once are known to be harmonic. Harmonic patterns may be pleasing or unpleasing to the ears. This varies since some may find it pleasing while others the same harmonies unpleasing.

Chords are taken to have meaning. The reason behind this is because they are bound to form other chords from the original chords. Music has different styles in which progressions finds different acceptance rates. Triad is a basic to every harmony. There are various types of chords of which the common one is the triad. The scale is comprised of several notes of which some of these form the triad. The notes of the scale which form the triad are the first, third and the fifth. The sixth, fourth and the second notes are included in the case when the triad when the second note forms the triad. In this case the interval is still maintained. Sub dominant and Tonic are some of the names given to some of the chords. This includes the IV chord and the triad chord consecutively. Musical time is generally the rhythm. Timely flow gives the rhythm in music. Beat in music refers to the pulsation which takes place.

Deaf people have a composition which is unique in a way. Sign language is mostly used by deaf people (Spencer Patricia E., 2000). The culture adopted by deaf people is unique defined by certain values and goals. The primary language used in United States by deaf people is the American Sign Language. American Sign Language is both manual and visual. The language involves the use of signs. These sign are formed as a result of body movement, by use of hands, posture of the body and facial expression. Emotion, information and useful ideas are conveyed through American Sign Language by the deaf people. This takes place with much versatility and complexity.

There are some deaf people who are in a position to get wording from the lips. This enables communication between deaf people and hearing people. Despite of this being of advantage, research indicate that there are few English words which can be traced from the lips. Lip reading is considered to be frustrating and unreliable. This is because of the possibility of misunderstanding because of guessing what might be portrayed in the lips (Gardner Howar, 1999). There are some deaf people who are in a position to read the lips. Conversion is normally carried out between hearing people and the deaf during public rallies through lip reading. Interpreters of sign language are vital in ensuring efficient communication.

Communication with deaf people who are highly skilled in lip reading lies on melodic universe. When composing music, the composer arranges notes to have a certain value. Musical statement is formed by mixing the essential elements of rhythm, melody and harmony. This is the same way a painter mixes colors to get a certain shape and brightness. Melodic concept is developed upon playing a melody instrument. Such instruments include piano, horn and guitar. Melodic ideas are complemented upon playing melody instrument such as piano. This calls for use of relevant harmonies and rhythmic concept. There are times when counter melodies are essential. The listener of music has singular experience to melodies. This is why certain notes are repeatedly used to compose new songs. A single note is concentrated at a time. This is what is referred to as melodic line. Emotional, tonal, sublimal and musical information is conveyed through this medium. The listening experience is formed from the harmonic and rhythmic structures. A listener is normally swayed by the melodic line. This is what is heard.

Hearing enables capture what is happening in the environment. Negotiation with the surrounding can be achieved through hearing. Spoken language can be accessed through hearing. Sound is what is heard. The characteristics of sound include loudness and timbre. There are various causes of deafness to sounds. Deafness is more prominent in old people. Ringing occurs within the ears of deaf people. Ringing sound is what is recognized by deaf people before realizing their hearing loss. Noise exposure is believed to be the major source of hearing loss.

In conclusion, melody has much significance to deaf people. Deaf people perceive the ringing sound. This makes them communicate with the environment through melody of sounds. There are some deaf people who are capable of communicating through lip reading of spoken language. This is not widely applicable since there are few English words can be accessed from the lips. The use of sign language is common in people with hearing impairment.

Relationship between Family Structure and Delinquent Behavior

The hypothesis that the authors were attempting to answer is that there exists a significant relationship between family structure and delinquent behavior. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that the parental attachment factor of social control theory can clarify why children from non-traditional families are more likely to indulge delinquent acts than those from traditional, two parent homes.

The following are divisions of non-traditional family structure as independent variables intact (if both biological parents are present in the home), neither natural parent (if both biological parents are lacking), reconstituted (if one biological parent has been substituted by a step-parent) and single parent (if one biological parent is missing and has not been substituted), subdivided in to categories like age, sex and socioeconomic status while the dependent variables are delinquent behavior within the home, minor transgressions of the law and status offenses.

The study results show children from at least one of the three non-traditional family structures have a higher probability of being delinquent than those who come from intact homes. The most vulnerable type of family appears to be the one in which neither natural parent is present. Children from this group have the highest probability of committing any delinquent acts.

The conclusion in this study suggests that children from non-traditional family structures experience lower levels of parental attachment and this deficit in attachment leads to delinquent behavior. The results of this are suggestive rather than definitive. It is definitely necessary to replicate this study by means of a research design that can give a report on the possible existence of reciprocal relationships amongst variables and the possibility that spurious correlations were created by the omission of major variables from the causal model.

Research, Statistics and Psychology

Research is an organized study, methodical investigation in to a subject in order to discover facts, to establish or revise a theory, or to develop a plan of action based on the facts discovered. Research can also be defined as scientific investigation of alleged phenomena and events that appear to be unaccounted for by conventional physical, biological or psychological theories. The scientific research method is the means by which researchers put together conclusive and valid statements concerning a study they have done with a minimum of bias. Unfortunately data interpretation can be laden with bias.

The researcher often has personal stakes in the results of his conclusive statements and his work at large. For the purpose of minimizing the influence of personal stakes and biased opinions, a standard method of testing a hypothesis is to be used by all the members of the scientific community. The first step to using the scientific method is to have some basis for conducting your research which is based on observed phenomenon that is either directly or indirectly related to the specific subject matter of your proposed research. The second step is to form a hypothesis which will be used to explain some major aspects of your observations. You are now ready to test the hypothesis which you have formed. Your formed hypothesis will be used to predict other phenomena that have not yet been observed. The final step is to test your prediction. It should be noted that you cannot prove your hypothesis you can only fail to disprove it. While this is the way the scientific method is used in day to day research and hypothesis testing, it is also the basis of creating theories and laws. Most scientific methods in the present day require a hypothesis to be done away with if experiments repeatedly contradict the predictions made. A hypothesis may sound so great but it should be noted that any hypothesis is only as good as its ability to consistently predict experimental results. It should also be noted that a theory or hypothesis is not in any way meaningful if it is not quantitative and testable. Lakatos (1970) suggested that Kuhn (1970) was right to state that science does not progress by falsification. Lakatos proposed that theory tests are not two-cornered contests among competing theories and investigations. Some investigations result in confirmation rather than falsification. Lakatos proposed a scientific theory, T1, is falsified if, and only if, another theory, T2, has the following characteristics T2 predicts novel facts that are improbable for, even forbidden by, T1. Secondly, T2 explains the previous success of T1 that is, all the parts of T1 that have not been refuted are contained within T2 and finally some of the information in T2 exceeding that in T1 has been corroborated. The ultimate success of this approach of investigation is a sequence of problem-shifts of a series of theories T1, T2, T3 each having as much content as the un-refuted content of the previous one and differs from it by some additional proposition(s).

In comparison to Secondary data or second hand published data, Primary or first-hand data are very costly one reason is because primary data has never been gathered before. An advantage of primary data is you find the data you need to suit your purpose. Unfortunately because of the added expense associated with collection of primary data, there is no certainty that what is gained by way of improvement over secondary data sources is worth the added cost. A prior assumption of primary data supremacy are unwarranted poorly drawn samples, sampling errors, inadequate or poorly trained field workers, and poorly conceived schedules are among possible sources of error to balance against the possibilities of secondary data being inapplicable to a region. Using the primary research methods we note that focus groups bring together respondents with common characteristics and observations are actually made from viewing the respondents. Primary data makes it possible for the researcher to control variables and respondent groups as well as having one-on-one survey with respondents this increases the accuracy of the results in line with the current situations at the ground. On the other hand secondary data analysis saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and particularly in the case of quantitative data, secondary data also provides larger and higher quality databases than would be difficult for any individual researcher to collect on their own. A number of analysts consider secondary data essential, since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change andor development. The main purpose of both primary and secondary data is that they are collected and analyzed for the purpose of making valid inferences on the findings and eventually making sound decisions which solve the problem in question from the collected data.

Statistics is a branch of applied mathematics which consists of univariate and multivariate procedures. Psychologists use univariate procedures in research when they measure one variable and multivariate procedure are used when multiple variables are used to determine the relationship between two or more variables, to derive the test statistic and to extract factors.

Statistics is used to describe data in terms of the shape, central tendency and dispersion of their frequency distributions and to make decisions about the properties of the statistical populations on the basis of sample statistics in research. Statistical decisions are made with reference to a body of theoretical distributions the distributions of a number of test statistics that are in turn derived from the appropriate sample statistic. A parameter is basically a property of the population, where as a statistic is just characteristic of the sample. A test statistic is an index derived from the sample statistic. The test statistic is used to make a statistical decision about the population in a given research. Statistics is divided in to two descriptive and inferential statistics.  Psychologists use descriptive statistics to describe research data concisely. Psychologists apply inferential statistics to decide whether or not there is statistical significance with reference to a criterion value set in terms of the distribution of the test statistic.