Running head PHILOSOPHY.

Complex machines are functional devices that help people. Every one of us needs machines or devices in our daily life. Although they are very useful to people altogether, it does not mean that the approach to them when it comes to the moral status is the same that to the people. They have no feelings. For example, destroying a machine does not harm it. No violation will be charged against anybody when heshe disassembles it. This is not similar to the people because human beings have the ethical rights thus when they are violated it can lead to hearing.
It is a clear fact that it is wrong to murder human beings because they have the moral reputation and human rights. But the machine has no life thus when somebody turns it off, there is no rule being violated. No one will be put to jail just because its plug is removed from the outlet.
Machines have no mind to reason out when somebody is overusing it. But if the people are abused whether physically or mentally, they can refuse. This act can never be done by machines unless they are operated by the people.
All the examples that I have mentioned will never affect the complex machines nor will have a negative effect to them. But for the owner of the machines, all the unnecessary things that have been done to his machines will be very painful. If they are overused and handled improperly, it shows that the privacy of the owner is being dishonored. That is why, for the human being, everybody must treat the machines as if it is an individual just for the sake of the person who owns it.
    As a whole, though machine is only a device, it also needs care while handling it not because it has the moral rights and reputation but because the owner of it has. Respect, concern, love and responsibility are necessary if you are using a machine.

Literature Philosophy Paper.

Both Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness and Franz Kafkas The Metamorphosis are about looking beneath the surface. Explain, as thoroughly as possible, how each of these literary works is about looking beneath the surface. Also, explain, as thoroughly as possible, what is found in each case by looking beneath the surface.
In his Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad skillfully develops the theme of looking beneath the surface, in particular, beneath the surface of human civilization when human receive considerable power and entitlements. The novella describes events associated with the colonization of Africa, the Dark Continent.  The main character is employed by a Belgian concern, created to trade with Congo allegedly to help Africans improve the quality of their life. In reality, from his first days, Marlow sees how the Company oppresses the native people they are forced to work for the colonists almost for free in terrible conditions and suffer from overwork and ill treatment ( Conrad, 2008, Part II). Furthermore, Kurtz, the typical colonist, positioned himself in the indigenous community as a deity by using inhumane methods, and when Marlow and his crew approach  the Inner Station, they see a collection of severed heads on fences. Furthermore, Kurtz, who perceives his entitlements as unlimited, undertakes bloody ivory raids in the surrounding territories. His pathetic papers describing the opportunities which colonization might bring to the natives end with the following urge Exterminate all the brutes (Conrad, 2008, Part III). Therefore, such terms as rich culture, morality, humanity and civilization lose their meaning for those who get an opportunity to execute power over the weaker without being controlled.
In The Metamorphosis, the author questions the power of family bonds and shows their reverse side by turning his protagonist into a beast (Kafka, 2003). Gregor, a successful salesman, wakes up one morning and finds out he has transformed into a huge beetle, yet having the mind of a human-being. Although he tries to maintain the relationships with his mother, father and sister, they apparently reject the main character, dooming him to isolation. Although Gregor was the familys breadwinner and loved son and brother, they quickly forget his devotion and become disappointed given the disappearance of their source of material well-being. Although they continue to help him meet his basic needs, their feelings gradually shift from indifference to hatred. When Gregor undertakes his final attempt to reunite the family and leaves his room to listen to the melody his sister is playing, he hears Greta saying that he is not a human any longer and the family should get rid of him. Although the images in the story are grotesque and unrealistic, it might mean that beneath the surface of seemingly strong psychological bonds in the family one can find merely market relations in which one member receives care, attention as long as the others can use him or her as a source of financial support. But when this person develops a serious illness or disability, they become redundant.
2)The main characters in both Thomas Manns Tonio Kroger and Albert Camuss The Stranger are, in one sense or another, outsiders. Explain, as thoroughly as possible, how the main characters in each of these literary works is an outsider. Then explain, as thoroughly as possible, how being an outsider plays a role in what the main character in each case, Tonio and Meursault, eventually learns about himself.
In Camuss The Stranger, the main character can be described as an outsider, as he is not connected to this world and this life either socially or emotionally. For instance, he falls asleep at his mothers funeral, which can be interpreted as a lack of social competence and feelings children normally have for their parents.  He agrees to marry his girlfriend Marie only after she explains that it would be a great choice and people who have a romantic relationship should register it officially (Camus, 1942, p.24). Moreover, when Mersault feels aggression concerning the Arab on the beach, he simply murders his irritant without any reflections about the moral and social value of human life.
In the prison Mersault spends a long time in solitary confinement and thinks a lot about the sense of human life. As an outsider, who never experienced psychological involvement into society, he realizes that his attitude towards the world is the same as the worlds towards him As if that blind rage had washed me clean, rid me of hope for the first time, in that night alive with signs and stars, I opened myself to the gentle indifference of the world. Finding it so much like myself  so like a brother, really  I felt that I had been happy and that I was happy again (Camus, 1942, p.65). Therefore, the man realizes he is an ordinary person who was born and will die and have no further importance, so but he, luckily, has never sought to become important and has been happy in his careless and simplistic attitude towards the world.  
Tonio Kroger, the main character of Manns story of the same name, is a person of sensitive nature. From his early years, he perceives himself as different from his coevals who seem motivated for engaging with social life and more extraverted. As a child, Tonio feels envy for the vitality and vigor inherent to his friends Hans and Ingeborg and is not able to accept the middle-class values his parents share (Mann, 1999, p.5). Further, he develops into a talented writer and comes to idea that a creative person should remain estranged from society and to certain degree  from reality. However, when Tonio happens to meet a dancing couple who resemble Ingeborg and Hans, he finally recognizes his love for humanity. Inspired by the two beautiful people emanating love for each other and the world, Tonio comes to conclusion that an artist or writer should be able to reconcile such facets of existence as art and reality, nature and intelligence, the material and the spiritual.

Augustine and Aristotle on Friendship.

Friends have a powerful role in shaping people. As social creatures who know to recognize their needs, people surround themselves with friends. Since human relationship and interaction is complex and very broad to define, philosophers and writers even from the very beginning constantly tried to broaden the circumference of their knowledge and wisdom towards friendship. In Aristotles book Nicomachean Ethics and Augustines book Confessions, both explore and discuss the deeper the meaning of friendship. From their observation and personal experience, they gave and provided the contemporary world their profound insights about friendship. 
    To confess during Augustines time, meant to both give an account of ones past faults or sins to God and to praise God. Augustines confessions narrates his life from sinfulness to faithfulness which he believes a story of Gods greatness and love. Augustine incorporated his philosophical and religious realizations from the story of his sinful life and redemption. He contributes wisdom and ideas about life and spirituality. Saint Augustine also has many valuable things to say about the meaning of true friendship. Apparently people are aware about Augustines relationshipfriendship towards her mother. During his sinful life, Augustines mother never stops praying for his liberation and redemption. His mother Monica is the one who always reminds him  that he should not fall into fornication, and above all that he should not commit adultery with someone elses wife  (Augustine 27). Looking back, Augustine realizes that his mothers warnings against sexual sins and exploitation were actually  God speaking her  (Augustine 28). His mother is used by God as a medium to warn him against sexual impurity. The genuine love and concern of a mother towards her son makes Augustine finally admits that his mother is one of her truest friend.
    However before Augustines redemption, Augustine allows the voice of his peers to become more powerful than the voice of the Almighty in his own life. The negative pressure from his peer group leads him to  pretend I had done things I had not done at all, so that my innocence should not lead my companions to scorn my lack of courage. (Augustine 89) Instead of lifting him up to goodness to be the best person he can be, Augustines friends effectively perverted his conscience. His true nature of goodness is misdirected and misguided due to peer pressure.
    In book II, Augustine narrates what it seems to be the most sinful period of his life. Aside from sexual escapades, Augustine with some of his friends the time when they courageously steal pears from a neighborhood orchard. Augustine deeply regrets this sin and offers his acquired insights from this experience. Augustine considers this conformity towards this teenage prank due to his to do wrong. He becomes a thief at that moment not because of the beauty, taste and nourishment that the pears may give, but he does it out of sheer mischief and his want for belongingness.  My pleasure was not in the pears  but rather   it was in the crime itself, done in association with a sinful group  (Augustine 92). In addition, Augustine also admits that, on his own, he will never have the inclination or the will to steal peers. But for the sake of friendship, he compromised his soul and denied someone elses human right to property. Investigating this point further, Augustine concludes that his action simply represents human perversion, twisting his God given goodness and attributes.  In the end of the book II, Augustine shares that  friendship can be a dangerous enemy, a seduction of the mind lying beyond the reach of imagination  (Augustine). Augustine later in his life, comes to believe that his group of friends at that point of his life is one his greatest downfalls since they are the primary reason for his sinful behavior. Peer pressure through their appealing persuasion led him to sinful thoughts, feelings and actions that Augustine would not do in his own will. In this book,  Augustine urges his followers to use careful scrutiny when choosing friends because unhealthy group of friends may lead to corruption of soul.
    Misdirected love is the primary reason when friendship becomes a dangerous enemy. Throughout the Confessions, Augustine portrays himself and all human beings as lovers. The book is apparently not just about his life but also about humanity. He illustrates that love is an essential part of peoples nature. Friendship like love must be subjected to reason it its truly good and genuine. It is real when the lover wants the best for the beloved. However when friendship destroys ones soul, Augustine says that one must be careful. Meanwhile, Augustine also examines this pointless act of theft and surmises that adolescents or teenagers want to do evil things because they do not understand the nature of beauty or goodness. Sins are committed for love or out of the desire for beautiful or good things. Those teenagers including Augustine that time does not yet understand that the material or tangible things are only part of the beauty and goodness of God. Augustine ends book II affirming that the higher things, the things of God, are what he desires not the sins of his youth.
    Augustine however affirms that there are many kinds and facets of friendship and many of these are not a bad thing. Aside from his friendship with his mom, his friendship with Thagaste is proved beneficial to Augustine. Augustine admires Thagastes courage and backbone to challenge Augustine when the latter went wrong. During Thagastes baptism Augustine,  attempted to joke with him, imagining that he too would laugh with me about the baptism and mocked one of the Churchs sacraments attempting that his friend will do the same, but Thagaste would not conform and tolerate it.
    Aristotle however has a broader scope in terms of defining friendship. If Augustine describes friendship according to his personal experience, Aristotle discusses friendship in a broader and general sense. Friendship for Aristotle consists of mutual feeling of goodwill between two individuals. According to Aristotle, when friendship is based on utility, where both people are together due to benefits, and when friendship is based on pleasure, where both people are drawn to the others pleasant qualities, then those friendship are short lived since needs and pleasures change overtime. But friendship according to Aristotle should be based on goodness, where both persons affirm the others goodness and help one another strive for goodness. Goodness is an enduring quality and is the highest form of obedience, so friendships based on goodness tend to be long lasting. Such kind of friendship however is rare and takes time to develop. Aristotle also goes on to say that the true mark of friendship is consists more of loving than of being loved. Friendship endure when each friend loves the other according to the others benefits and merit.
    Meanwhile, Aristotle also incorporated friendship with community or society. Friendship and community according to him is closely related. Aristotle goes on to say that it is far worse to abuse a family member and a close friend than to abuse a stranger. In addition Aristotle also believes that in political institutions where there is a master-slave relationship, there is no friendship that exists. Apparently friendship is impossible when there is no equal or mutual exchanges of goodness. In political institutions, someone always benefits better. For instance, a tyrant is a king who no longer cares for his subjects and so is no longer virtuous and worthy of his place. When the merit of the leader is greater than what the people receives, then friendship does not exist. Aristotle discusses friendship in a greater length with family relationships and political institutions. In his book  Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle in Book VIII and IX illustrates his conception of happiness and friendship by showing how satisfying are the relationships that a virtuous individual can normally expect to have. Aristotles model of ideal friendship is that which exists between two aristocratic men of great virtue. These men are not bonded together through need, utility, or familial duty, or through  wealth or popularity but rather through mutual respect and virtue. Virtuous friends spend quality time with each other and since they have the same set of virtues or moral standards, they make the same choices.
    Augustine in his definition of friendship is more intimate since his basis of definition is based from his faith and experience. Augustine and Aristotle however both believe that a real friend should be a good influence with each other. Augustine however explores deeper when is friendship becoming dangerous. Misguided desires and lack of obedience often lead to sin which may influence others. Apparently even if his friendship with his mother and Thagaste are not mutual, he still consider them as one of his truest friends even though he initially ignore them. Both his mother and Thagaste only want the best for Augustine in terms of goodness and virtues. Apparently Augustine friendship still exists even though the feelings is not mutual. As long the other wants and prays the best for you, then you in return recognizes it then friendship already exists. Aristotle however believes in mutual friendship, that is both parties should give equal respect and justice. On the whole for Aristotle, friendship should consists of equal exchanges, whether of utility, pleasantness, or goodness. When there great gap and differences between people, according to Aristotle friendship is impossible, and often two friends will grow apart if one becomes far more virtuous than the other. In case Augustine however even if his mother and Thagaste is more virtuous in their relationship, he still considers them as true friends. Meanwhile, Aristotle define friendship in a broader sense  which includes family and community. Friendship for Aristotle should provide happiness while Augustine believes that friendship should make us closer to goodness which is God. Meanwhile Augustine holds on to the Christian idea that one should others as you love yourself. Aristotle however, self-love is more important than friendship, since only individuals who treat themselves with appropriate care and respect can achieve proper virtue and happiness. Apparently Aristotle based his definition on friendship according to reason in terms of how to achieve happiness while Augustine based his definition in terms of Christian standards towards faith and goodness.

Lives and ideas.

John Locke was born and grew up during a historic period in Europe from 1632-1704  in Somerset, England. At the time in Europe, when monarchies had absolute power and yearned to increase it still. Locke in his writings favored representative government and a rule of law. He denounced tyranny. He insisted that when government violates individual rights, people may legitimately rebel (Powell, 1996).
In his political theory, Lockes Two Treatises on Government upheld the doctrine of human liberty and explained the significance of human rights against absolutism (Richard, 1999). He postulated that men in a natural state are born free and equal with inalienable rights (John, n.d). Most of his writings were signed using an assumed name because of the fear of being discovered while in exile. Locke was also responsible for developing an insight into human understanding in his Essay concerning human understanding. Though he wrote other works such as the Letters Concerning Toleration, The Reasonableness of Christianity and Some Thoughts Concerning Education,  his most important and outstanding works are two treatises and the essay and on human understanding. Locke believed that Good and evil, reward and punishment, were the only motives to a rational creature and claimed that mankind could be manipulated and guided using these as tools. He was thus dubbed the freedom philosopher (Stanford encyclopedia, 2001).
John Stuart Mill was born in 1806 to a philosopher and economist James Mill. He was well educated under the tutelage of Jeremy Bentham also a philosopher. As a young man Mill had a serious mental breakdown which made him question the purpose for his life on earth. Because he was born and raised as a utilitarian, he defended it and developed a knack for pestering the British people by trying to persuade them to realize how significant both the scientific approach  and the insights of the liberal arts were in engineering social, political and economic change (Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy).
His main works include the system of logic, Principles of Political Economy, On Liberty, Utilitarianism, The Subjection of Women, and Three Essays, But it is his essay on Liberty which is the most acknowledged masterpiece of his thought.
In his political works Mill comes out as man who believed in the rights of the individual to determine himherself. He was an ardent defender of the secret ballot though in some of his works this was never very evident. He was also defended the liberty of women in Britain and even prepared an amendment bill in the British parliament -the reform Act of 1867- which would give women the same political rights as men. Though the lost very badly when it was put to vote, it very clear that he was already thinking centuries ahead of his contemporaries. He wrote many books on economy and philosophy than Bentham, his father James and even J. Locke who preceded him.
Traces in the modern society today
In the United Nations Human Rights Charter the coinage and the words used to describe the rights of the citizen are similar to what Mill and Locke used and their ideas of natural rights are still retained in the charter.
In New York City where the statue of liberty stands, also stand the capital of the worlds greatest commercial hub, social and cultural icon and also a beacon of the principle of the right to freedom. For many years, The US has been known as the land of freedom where everyone is free to do as they please as long as they keep the laws of the land.
Practices in law and civil rights
The US constitution is primarily based on Liberty. When drafting the constitution, the founding fathers heavily borrowed from Locke the ideas of natural rights and historically Thomas Jefferson was a dear friend of Locke. Other laws that protect minorities such as African American and Hispanics have been introduced as well as pre existing ones such as the right to privately own property, speech and associate among others. These are evident in Mills on liberty essay which defended these rights studiously. Consequently, the law recognizes that the individual is innocent unless proven guilty, and has right to have hisher say even if the majority thinks heshe is wrong.