Mobile Phone Texting and Human Happiness

Technological advances have definitely had an impact on human happiness, both positive and negative depending on what technological innovation is in question and what angle you look at it from. Mobile technology, specifically texting, is one technological innovation that has had adverse effects on human happiness and the way of living to the point it become almost indispensable in achieving complete and fulfilling happiness.

Mobile Texting and Human Happiness
The idea behind text messages was to create an alternative way of communication to talking on the telephone that was going to be short, precise and fast. This way, text messaging is the most ideal means of communication in situations where talking is prohibited for one or both parties communicating such as when one is in a meeting or a church. Text messages also eliminate the chances of misunderstandings caused by technical problems as by bad receptions. For this reason, coupled with the fact that they can be stored for future reference alongside with other information including the sender and the time it was received or sent, text messages are quite resourceful when it comes to sending information that includes instructions andor procedures of doing something.

Text messaging was initially intended to solve these communication problems but it has evolved to become more than just a means of communication and has been applied in banking and even money transfer in many countries around the world.

Marvin Kohl, in his work, quotes Russell as having written that the conditions necessary for human happiness are twofold there are internal and external circumstances. As much as one can strive to achieve happiness independent of external circumstances, these circumstances still need to exist for human happiness to be realized. Russell went ahead to list the most significant ingredients for human happiness as food and shelter, love, health, successful work and respect of ones own herd. Where these things are lacking, only the exceptional man can achieve happiness. (Kohl, 1993, p. 9).
Using the list of human happiness requisites provided by Russell, this paper will find out how a technological innovation such as mobile texting provides or facilitates any of the things mentioned in the list so as to make man happy.

Mobile phone texting is one technological innovation that has had adverse effects on human happiness and the way of living to the point its become almost indispensable in achieving complete and fulfilling happiness. If we consider love, text messaging does much to help love between couples flourish. It has essentially revolutionized the whole dating scene making it more interesting and fun. People who are dating or are in a relationship tend to use text messages to send each other cute messages  all day which allows them to be with each other away from each other. Making each other feel loved and cared for. Frequent text messages between people who love or care for each other serve as an assurance that they are still loved. This feeing of love in turn creates a feeling of comfort, and then from comfort comes happiness.

Some text messages can be considered as gift giving, from the fact that the message being sent helps in making the bond of an already existing relationship stronger. These messages are characteristically addressing a current situation and do not plan on future interactions. An example of such a message may read have a nice day at work. The exchange of these messages alone compounds the nature of the relationship between the sender and receiver, who are the giver and the receiver respectively. These messages go further to express love. (Ling, 2004, p. 154)

In facilitating health in human beings, text messages prove useful when the sender of the message is not capable to talk due to injury or weakness. In such cases, text messages could end being life saving.

Text messaging has also had an impact on politics since its conception. Now it is a powerful tool for mobilizing people and informing them about events that may need their attendance. Due to the huge number of people sending text messages today, text messages have been an attractive platform for advertisements of all sorts. World politicians and their campaigners have realized the power text messages hold in distributing information and how it exposes them to the wide audience that they need. This enables the public to have personalized conversations with the people they are going to vote for or who are closely associated with himher. In turn it empowers citizens and allows them to have a say on national issues and be heard thus bringing down communication barriers. Similarly it helps in creating a large pool of sufficiently informed citizens who are better placed to make the rational judgments in the choice of candidates to vote for when it comes to elections. This is good and has positive effects on human happiness, which results from individuals being content with whomever they choose, reducing frustration and sadness since it enhances mans respect for his own herd, as expressed by Russell.

Still dwelling on advertisement, text messages are used to advertise products and services for businesses. It is a relatively cheap way of advertising which is suitable not only for small businesses in terms of mitigating costs but also with large corporations due to the ability to reach targeted masses. In some developing countries, text messaging has changed the way business transactions were initially handled by providing a means of money transfer that does not require one to have a traditional savings account with a bank hence increasing financial accessibility to people. On the other hand mobile banking has also taken root in most countries especially in the developed countries making it extremely simple for one to access and manage hisher account. When a person is able to make and manage hisher money with much ease, it creates a sense of success, reliability and efficiency in whatever work heshe is doing to make that money. When efficiency, reliability and effectiveness is increased people  tend to be satisfied and work hard making himher able to  accumulate an amount of wealth desired by the people and enabled by the technological platforms then people will definitely bound to be happy.

On the other hand, text messages are said to make it easier for spouses to cheat on their partners by lying about their location at places where background noises would give it away if it were a call. This almost always leads to major disintegration of happiness causing spouses who have been cheated on a great deal of unhappiness when they find out.

This might be a problem but really its a choice of an individual to cheat and heshe is not prompted to do so by text messages. Yes, texting presents the avenue through which to cheat and cover up ones cheating but it is a choice that an individual person makes that consequently defeats its intended purpose in terms of it adding quality in mans life by facilitating happiness. Even in doing so, texting keeps the cheating spouse happy knowing that hisher secret is safe up until the truth is unveiled. It all depends on trust between couples.

A good life is a happy life, but a happy life is not necessarily good. Therefore if a man is happy, he will be good and not bad, meaning he will not cheat on his wife (Kohl, 1993, p. 12). Texting makes people happy, when people are happy their desires are always satisfied and needs accomplished. Texting has done more good than harm generally, and it had a great impact on economic development and growth of many countries. Texts save time and money and the whole idea behind it has created jobs for many people not only in telecommunications firms but also with individuals who have been successful in their daily activities therefore keeping them happy.

Technology may or may not increase overall happiness, but it can make specific tasks easier so that individuals can do more, make more things, andyeshave more things. (Levite, 1998)  In conclusion, technological advances and innovations, just like material wealth, and other forms of new inventions do not in themselves exist to affect human happiness per se but rather act as a medium of satisfying particular needs which will sometimes depend entirely on the subjects involved either to make a positive or negative impact. Technology rather increases specific satisfactions to humanity.

What is the nature of the problem that religion poses for the realization of justice within the city andor the soul How significant is this problem

Religion teaches us to be virtuous, self disciplined, to eschew corrupt practices and lead a moral, humane life. It also imbibes in us the idea that the rulers should not oppress, or exploit the weaker classes in society and should be a role model in dispensing equity, justice and good conscience. However, it is seen that in the context of Platos The Republic, the realization and use of justice is subject to its interpretations by the ruling class. Thus, according to The Republic, it is quite possible that injustice may become just, when the ruling class applies it. As Thrasymachus says, I declare justice is nothing but the advantage of the stronger Republic 338c (Ross 2004).

In other words, it can be said that for the rich and the powerful, the end could justify the means and attaining wealth and happiness could be validated, even if these were procured through apparently unjust means. According to Plato-Chapter IV (1.347E-3540), Thrasymachus views that injustice rather than justice brings welfare and happiness (Plato and Cornford).

Thus, while religion states that both the means and the end of pursuing wealth and happiness need to be morally and ethically sound, in The Republic, Plato argues that each class in the society, intellectual, soldier class and traders have distinct and clear roles and duties. He further purports that, interference by these three classes with each others jobs could be said to be the worst of evils, when applied to ones own communitys injustice (Plato 1987). According to Plato, taking care of ones own affairs and non-interference with the duties of others is the best form of justice and needs to be appreciated. If each section of the society plays its role properly and stands up to its responsibility, justice would be served.

Further, Plato argues that just as the realization of justice within the city is achieved through its constituent political structural framework, in terms of occupation role playing, similarly the individual soul has several constituents- like sense parts which controls a persons appetites, hunger, thirst and hedonistic pleasures, the rational part which makes him distinguish between truth and falsehood, good or evil and the spirited part, which seeks out honor and pride. These are the three parts that govern a mans soul and help him to lead an honorable and moral life. It is quite possible that flouting religion and own conscience, one may attach more importance to ones part, perhaps ignoring the others. The problem that arises then is that while the Scriptures teach equanimity and moderation, the realization of justice in an individual context can be in contradiction, or even in conflict with religion.

In The Republic, Thrasymachus argues that there is no such thing as morality or sin. It is a mans own perception about what is immoral, amoral or moral that matters. This is in contradiction to what religion professes in terms of leading a good and contented life, in accordance with what has been enunciated in the Scriptures and other holy books. The three constituents of a man- senses, spirits and rationality- need to be in conformity to the actions and words but often this is not the case. Similarly, humans often denounce their souls in their pursuit for material pleasures and wealth aggrandizement.

This is a significant problem since the true basis of a persons life is the way one lives, and how one interacts with fellow human beings, peer groups, elders and others. If one is not able to follow religious texts and enforce those in life, one is no better than a non- human, non-sentient being whose life is guided by baser instinctive values and codes.

How does Plato handle (or avoid handling) the problem

Plato addresses the problem of justice and non-justice by making comparisons with certain occupations. Although the carpenters, farmers and artisans make contribution towards dissemination of knowledge, it is restricted to their own individuality and for meeting their own interests but not directed at the city as a composite whole. Thus, it transpires that the aspects of understanding and awareness should not confine to some individuals but extend to the state for the benefit of all its citizens. This could only be done through good governance and a strong sense of justice and fair play. These duties and responsibilities are entrusted with the minority governing class and it is the government that needs to distinguish, in each individual case between what constitutes justice and fair play and what is injustice. The transformation of knowledge into wisdom is most appropriately and definitely found in the governing class, since this needs to consider the overall well being and welfare of the total population. The main function of governance, according to Plato, is to dispense justice and this is what distinguishes it from other occupations and services. The four qualities of wisdom, courage, discipline and justice are most relevant to four classes courage is a boon for soldiers, wisdom and discipline for traders and businessmen, justice for the governing class. According to Plato, all problems could be solved if each individual takes care of hisher own business and refrains from interfering with the works of others. Through a process of non interference it is possible that each trade or occupation renders justice and fair play by trying to improve, sustain and advance ones own interests, without treading on the interests of others. According to Plato, the cause for injustice occurs if and when soldiers interfere in the matters of businessmen, the latter intervenes in governance or guardian functions. Plato goes on to compare the three classes, businessmen, auxiliaries and governors to the three elements of the mind. (Plato 217).

The three elements of the mind, viz. spirit, appetite and reason govern individuals just as traders, rulers and soldiers rule the country. In the same way, the preponderance of one element of governance over the others could create issues in governance. Likewise, if a person attaches more importance to one aspect of the personality and interaction, it can lead to disaster, and perhaps death. Plato goes on to argue, comparing the state of humans with that of the state. He believes that if the elements in a mans mind - reason and spirits - are in conformity and harmony, it is possible that these would be in a position to control and master the sense organs, or senses. This stage is called a state of perfect harmony and equilibrium of good health. Thus, it could be said that a person will be in good health if all these senses were controlled and brought to a harmonic focus. Similarly, in the case of the state, when all its three constituents - rulers, soldiers and traders  take care of their own affairs without intervening in the affairs of one another, then it becomes an absolute certainty that good governance will entail. Thus, he argues, that the absence of sickness and presence of good health is possible when all the three  constituents of body and mind work in unison and harmony, and this is also possible in the case of governance, or administration, when all three major classes work in harmony without interference in each others affairs. This gives scope for an interpretation that when a human beings senses are in harmony, one will attain good health. By good health, Plato implies a healthy state of mind and it can be deduced that a person who possesses a healthy state will be able to recognize and impart justice and become capable of offering correct judgments. In the same vein, a state where good governance exists, the authorities will attain the ability to recognize and serve justice to all its citizens, in its right perspective. When the allegory of justice and injustice in governance are compared with non-sickness and sickness in human body and mind, it is evidenced that justice is produced by establishing in the mind a similar natural relation of control and subordination among its constituents, and injustice by establishing an unnatural one (Plato 222).

According to Plato, there is a need for justice to prevail over injustice in human society, just as it is an absolute necessity to have a sound mind in a sound body. But he is confounded by the arguments put forth by Glaucon and Adeimantus that justice needs not be sought for its own sake but for the preservation of human values. According to Plato, it is always necessary to be just, despite the obvious constraints and troubles that a person needs to undergo. However, Glaucon and Adeimantus argue that his philosophies could only be laudable and tenable if justice could be proved that it is always better to be just (Platos Ethics and Politics in The Republic 2003). Essentially, the teacher needs to show that being just is better than being unjust. The difference between the results of a just man scorning wealth in pursuance of a just life as compared to an unjust man, who pursues wealth unjustly and would be put into disadvantage if failed to act unjustly, is the main issue at this stage. Thus, the apparent benefits of a person being just rather than unjust or not seeking justice is the area where Plato could not handle the philosophy of justice with consummate ease, unlike his earlier arguments. In essence what could be surmised is the fact that honest and virtuous people are being punished, perhaps for living a good and virtuous life, whereas unjust and amoral people are rewarded for their bad and evil actions. This is the universal axiom that needs to be answered. The comparison between the state of body and mind of a person devoid of illness is said to be a sound and healthy body, wherein the two states of reason and spirits are so well coordinated that they are able to control the senses. This is an ideal state for the body, according to Plato. It is also necessary that the governance of countries follows suit so that justice is served to all its citizens. However, one needs to appreciate that although at an individual level it is possible to gain equilibrium between body, soul and senses, this may not be possible in the case of nations, which may be beset with a large number of problems and issues and the reins of power remain scattered among many hands. At an individual level, it is possible for people to seek medication, treatment and regain their mind-body-soul equilibrium. On the other hand, this apparently will not be possible in the case of governance in which there are a plethora of problems and issues and different people who constitute the governing body. Platos concept of non-interference with the affairs of others may be theoretically possible, but has practical and empirical difficulties since in administration or governance, the impacts of different sets of power distribution and its accountability need to be woven together to form a continuum of events. In the real world, it is not possible to ignore the influences of one segment on the workings of another, and perhaps this could have a destabilizing effect on governance if there is no cohesiveness and co-ordination between the parties.

How successful is Plato at dealing with the issue

Plato was successful in dealing with this issue only to a certain extent. He could not answer in a plausible manner the arguments put forth by Glaucon and Adeimantus as to why injustice seems to be a better deal than justice and why people who commit injustices are apparently happy and contented while just people are condemned to live in relative misery and self abashment. Perhaps the main notion of comparing the individual self with the institutionalized governance might not have been keenly debated, more so in the context of justice and non-justice. It could also be said that what could be held out for individuals might not be applicable for state, in as much as there were major and crucial aspects, sometimes beyond redemption that might occur in the case of cities.

What do Platos arguments and maneuverings with respect to this issue reveal about his conception of justice, as regards its meaning, purpose, persuasiveness andor limits

Platos arguments and maneuvering with respect to this subject of justice and non justice could be viewed from the fact that justice, therefore, we may say, is a principle for this kind its real concern is not with external actions, but with a mans inward self, his true concern and interest (Plato 221). According to Plato, the sense of justice needs to be imbued in humans and they need to be able to distinguish between righteous and wrong, good and evil, just and unjust. By following these values themselves, human beings could not only set yardsticks for their own conduct and lives but also be able to enforce self-discipline, truth and justice in others. The answer is that the two blend in one, and are two faces of the same truth for justice is the order of the State, and the State is the visible embodiment of justice under the conditions of human society. The one is the soul and the other is the body, and the Greek ideal of the State, as of the individual, is a fair mind in a fair body (Plato and Jowett).


The Republic has been the magnum opus of Plato and through this writing he has touched, although only partly, on his views of justice and fair play, and the need for mankind to live a morally good life. Through such collective efforts it is possible for an ideal state to be reached, since all people would be following these high moral standards in their lives and would be able to enforce the same on others. Consequently, harmony and peace could be expected to prevail in nations across the globe.

Treacherous Remedies

It is indisputable that every attempt man is making is to prevent present discomfort and discontent in time to come. But still one gets faced with this puzzle presumably by the sheer fact that he failed to follow the principle of preventing being better than curing. Every pharmaceutical firm will produce medicine for curing and still indicate side effects. This shows that attempts to cure will always bring with it contraindications. Consequently, mans attempt to develop will always present with it challenges that turn out to be even more dangerous and hazardous. Generally, man wants to live a posh and self actualized life. Eat well, dress well, be entertained, venture into innovations and inventions and still remain secure, yet this pursuit has time and again translated into trouble.

Man is relentlessly making efforts to live a better life. It is a struggle of all odds. Along the struggle, the rich are overfed, the poor are underfed, and everybody is harassed by wants fatigues, anxieties, excesses, passions and sorrows which civilization generates. Rousseau strongly believed that civilization had corrupted mans natural happiness and reduced the freedom he had had by bringing about inequality, and for some enhancing social privileges and power.

While Rousseau J argues that a sophisticated world made the stronger and the intelligent gain undeserved advantage over others, Locke on the other hand believed that the natural man was free and independent and that these gains ought to have been enjoyed by all men. Locke goes ahead and even quotes the bible, that God gave the world in common to mankind.

These two arguments to us present a deal gone sour. Ordinarily, the available resources should be used for all and in equal terms. By these prepositions, all developmental attempts are running into unprecedented problems. Man, for instance discovers the nuclear power, by the above standards, the discovery should be communal, yet the human egocentric motives end up making it detrimental. The cardinal object of the discovery was to make life more comfortable and civilized. Forth, the discovery brings instants like the bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. So well protracted, yet ending into a tragedy.

Man endears to move from one developmental stage to another, similarly the state has to move from one political and economic level to another yet the level both the individual and the state get to, tend to present a state more challenging than the initial one. In the long run, man is always trying to resolve a conflict created by the present state. ...That states by accustoming themselves to neglect their ancient customs under pretext of improvement often introduce greater evils than those they endeavored to remove. This is an indication that in general the quest for humankind to better himself has always presented with it insurmountable challenges.

Consider general law, both the law of cause and the law effect. When
Faced with a decision to make, Locke J feels the magistrate should play such a key and pivotal role. The decision the magistrate makes is as cardinal and should be well thought out. The implication here is that in making progressive decisions, one should weigh the resultant pros and cons. Locke feels ultimately, decisions made in the passed have had far-reaching ramifications. Magistrate is contextually used symbolically to represent the decision maker. This is indicative of the fact that the decisions we are making presently may not well thought.

Globalization at inception was so great an idea, it presupposed to have eased economic, social and political strains. Yet this salient idea has been raped and cruelly abused. The whole noble idea turns out to be treacherous- the direct opposite of its object. Rousseau foresaw such issues become emergent at some point in life he postulated that, Original man is economically independent, it is hardly surprising that Rousseau, with his own memories of a lifetime of economic dependence, should emphasize this kind of personal freedom. And indeed, the departure from independence to dependence has turned out to be such a miraculous blessing in disguise.

Looking at industrialization, every one will yearn for it. Yet now, humankind is faced with its resultant issue of global warming. The projection for checking this trend is exorbitant and near to unattainable. The problem paused by industrialization range from desertification, earthquakes and tsunamis alike. The long-term cost of the effects tends to outwit the cost of installation. Definitely the issue here is not stopping industrialization but looking at possibilities of how it can be achieved without far reaching effects as is being witnessed today. Urbanization is coveted alike, unfortunately with it comes all sorts of evils including congestion, unemployment, pollution and general immorality. All this breed human discomfort which lacked at inception of the whole idea.

Drugs from pharmaceuticals are meant to help bring back the health of the user to initial state. But at some point one is advised to take another drug to counter the effects of the first, yet the accumulation of all these chemicals in the body present an incurable complication. The argument is not that innovation and inventions are bad in total, no. However, before undertaking any of these innovations one should consider the possibility of using existing alternatives.

The natural man had not governments. Locke believes that this was the best state of affair. But apparently the present man can not do without it. The very government that is installed by man disappoints him finally. (Locke Pp 9) wonders why the government one installs turns against him, doing their own will rather than the will of the voters. The very government, Locke goes on to argue, invades the rights of the voters. He does argue citing biblical evidence that God created man as equals and at no time should one trample over others.

On the strength of the foregoing discussion, two things come into play. That humankind has really made efforts. The efforts can be evidenced in medication, urbanization and industrialization. In doing this humankind wants to improve his condition of life. Humankind wishes to reduce the energies he is using in day to day chores. Take the case of a guillotine for instance, designed to cut paper but strangles the user, accidentally yet unfortunately.

Seminars, workshops and conference should be convened to encourage industrialization but most importantly, industrialization that will not make man an endangered species. Urbanization should be undertaken with all the zeal, but with precaution taking center stage in the policy formulation process. Mechanization should also be made a development agenda, but its introductory session should emphasize the safety of the occupant and the user. Such is what will make the earth continually a better place to live rather than a regrettable place to be.

Whichever school of thought there is, mechanization, industrialization and urbanization are here to stay, but how best do we embrace them in our households Well, as this noble course is undertaken, it should not derail the very cardinal and paramount object of staying in an environment so natural, yet so mechanized and industrialized to the very satisfaction of humankind. In a nutshell therefore, man should do all he is doing, but he should put in place every precaution lest the very works of his hands clear him off the earths surface.

The Entertainment Industry and the Issue of Morality

The entertainment industry has already been one of the most controversial industries present, given its widespread effect on how people perceive morality. Take note that the entertainment industry actually gathers a wide range of audience, including those from different age brackets, from different nationalities or ethnic affiliations, and from different economic class groups. In this case, the issue of morality with regards to the perceived immoral features of the entertainment industry, such as the portrayal of acts of violence, abuse, discrimination, and even satanic or ghetto culture, especially in music and other forms of mass media.

A lot of sectors, especially those coming from the church, politicians, and even ordinary citizens, have joined the debate on whether the entertainment industry must be blamed to the perceived moral decay in the United States, and on whether government regulation, and even restriction, is necessary to stop this decay. One of the major findings of a special report by the Culture and Media Institute is that most Americans believe that the nation is in moral decay, and that the news and the entertainment media are among the leading contributors to this case (The National Cultural Values Survey 4). In addition, according to the notes of Rich Harris, a user of the popular social networking site, , Once again the entertainment fronting like its ok because he served his time and learned his lesson and hes on probation. Harris is actually referring to the NFL star Michael Vick, who pleaded guilty in participating in dog fighting and killing them, and was convicted guilty of conspiring to unlawfully conspiring to sponsor dog fighting.

It is true that the entertainment industry, given its wide reach to the public, as well as its large following of audience, has a big part on how violent and often immoral acts are propagated and seen by many. In this case, I believe that the entertainment industry actually has a moral blame for this practice. It may be true that many people have different stand regarding morality, and that this country is a democratic country where personal liberty and belief is highly valued. However, it is also true that the entertainment industry, due to its large following in the pubic, has vested public interest, wherein there are specific laws that must be followed, and in which the moral fabric of a society, very vital in a societys integrity and harmony, must always be safeguarded from decay. Remember that this is also a country where adultery, rape, incest, and thief are also outlawed, and be informed that the banning of such acts actually have a moral basis. Given that it entails public interest, it is then only proper for the entertainment industry to have the responsibility to watch over it, and just not care about profits.
In this case, acts of violence towards women, or even acts of murder and violence that can now be commonly seen in the entertainment industry is surely a problem that the government must interfere. Just as the government interferes whenever a person commits a crime of rape, murder, or even destruction to property which all have a moral basis of judgment the government must also be able to interfere on the music and media scenes produced by the entertainment industry, which actually may propagate such acts. According to the article Morality and Economics Public Assessments of the Adult Entertainment Industry, value issues actually represent a significant part of public policy, and that public judgments are always determined entirely by moral feelings.

In this case, it is also important to take note of the fact that government regulation is already currently present in the entertainment industry, although in a limited form. Censures being made by the government to motion pictures are an example this is already one form of government regulation. In this case, there is no need for us to doubt on whether government regulation will actually work the point is, if the government has the political will to address this issue.

Week 3 Summary

Arguments contain fallacies, and it is often difficult to recognize fallacies in our own reasoning and in the reasoning or arguments of others.  One way to better recognize fallacies in reasoning is to become familiar with the different categories of fallacies, such as fallacies of relevance, fallacies of omission and component fallacies.  For example, when we present an argument we need to closely examine the evidence or examples that we use in our arguments.  Faulty reasoning occurs when the evidence or examples we use to justify our position are not relevant to the situation we are defending.

We must also analyze all statistics we use to support our arguments.  For example, if I were to say that 50 of college women cheat on their boyfriends and argue this case because after interviewing 4 college women, 2 admitted to cheating on their boyfriends, this would be a component fallacy.  Although 50 of the college women I spoke with did cheat, my result or conclusion is not valid because the number of college women in my study was too small.  I should have interviewed 100 college women.  However, the result was true, half of those I interviewed cheat, but it was still invalid.  If I simply stated that I did a survey, and the results indicated that 50 cheat, many people might believe that my results are valid.  They would need to ask, How many people did you survey or interview

We must ask questions and analyze what we are told so that we are able to recognize fallacies.  Otherwise, it becomes easy for us to be persuaded to belief things that are untrue and invalid.  This is how we are influenced and controlled by society.  We are often subject to fallacious reasoning because we listen to people in authority who appeal to our emotions or sense of reason.  Sometimes they even appeal to our character.  It is easy to persuade others to behave in certain ways and to have certain beliefs.  The media uses advertising daily to persuade consumers to purchase products and endorse political figures.  Cults have controlled people for years due to their inability to recognize fallacies.