Discussions related to the Triangular Theory of Love

Love plays an integral role in mate selection in individualistic cultures. However, love does not have much role to play in the collectivist cultures. The more economically developed a culture is, the more will it be individualist in nature. Since in collectivist culture marriage between two people affects the entire family love takes a backseat.

There are many different combinations of love. There is infatuated love which lacks the components like intimacy and commitment and is solely based on passion. These relationships do not last long. This kind of love is more rampant in individualist society as it concerns only the lovers themselves. Another combination makes companionate love. This love generally lacks passion but has the ingredients like commitment and intimacy. This love is common in collectivist society where a large percentage of people opt for arranged marriages. When there is an arranged marriage naturally the entire family is involved and commitment becomes an important quotient. After many years of marriage when passion takes a backseat then couples are in companionate relationships. The third and the best combination of love is of course the consummate love. This love can be found in both the cultures especially in newly married couples. In newly married couples there is loads of passion and intimacy is not difficult to achieve. In collectivist cultures attaining commitment is not a difficult thing. While in the individualist cultures, there can be many cases when commitment is the basis of relationship. Thus if couples are able to achieve the ideal combination of intimacy, passion and commitment then they are the happiest of all.

There are two strong reasons that cause the different combinations of love. The first reason is of course the culture one belongs to. The culture plays an important role in deciding the ratio of intimacy, passion and commitment in individuals. The second reason is the stage of life a couple is in. Youngsters experience more of romantic or infatuated love. Couples with children are more into companionate or consummate love. Very old couples are into companionate love.

Psychology of Gender

1. Discuss and give examples of how gender bias can become a factor in research.

Introduction
The American Heritage Dictionary defines bias as preference or inclination that inhibits impartiality prejudice (American Heritage Dictionary, 1983).

When it comes to academic positions, women arent promoted as often as men, or the case may be that female academics find it difficult to apply their knowledge in research. Rather than investigate real differences, investigates stereotypical differences or does not investigate issues important to women e.g. violence, pregnancy. The research may even bring about biased thoughts by searching for reasons in women for abnormal or different behavior

Traditional psychological research previously concentrated on the male experience and point of view. Feminist research methods have changed how traditional research on gender has emerged. There is now a interest in women focused psychology or what is now called andocentric bias.
Two theories of bias came about by, and were shaped, exaggerated, diminished the differences between men and women, Alpha Bias and Beta Bias they were termed. (Crosbie, 2009) Furthermore, these theories have contributed to the consensus that women were lesser by comparison to men male theory.

Examples of gender bias can be found in the following Kohlbergs work on male-female moral achievement. (Crosbie, 2009) His conclusions held that women were lower achievers than men. Bowlbys research on childcare raised the question as to whether or not women should stay at home instead of working outside and hiring childcare. Freuds theories of socialisation stated that women suffered from Penis envy that in turn leaves an imprint on their personality development. Erickson flatly said that women should stay home and care for their children.

Results extrapolated from research can also be skewed from biases. (Crosbie, L., 2009) For instance, stereotypes of typical females may be used instead of actual findings. This scenario if exacerbated can create unjustnon-substantiated differences. If the pool of peer reviewed articles, books, and other information is male dominated there can also be difficulties on finding credible studies that involve women.

Methodological bias
Using male preferred techniques such as carrying out Lab experiments when women are more comfortable in less controlled environments as in the case of interviews where there is emphasis on participation and personal experience.
   
A study carried out on intra-abdominal obesity and metabolic risk factors in Denmark was almost solely done on the men The subjects included 46 Caucasian subjects (6 women and 40 men). The conclusion of the study was for young people, intra-abdominal fat is the reason behind six metabolic risk factors. Unfortunately this has been shown only in males.

2. Evaluate the influence of family and media on gender development.

Family influence
A childs first exposure to the meaning of being male and female comes from the parents, (Lauer  Lauer, 1994 Santrock, 1994 Kaplan, 1991). From infancy, parents treat their daughters and sons differently, by dressing them in colors that are gender specific, expecting differing behavior form girls and boys an giving them toys differentiated by gender. Childrens experiences with different family members also shapes their perceptions on gender roles, e.g. the differing treatment of brothers and sisters in the family.
   
There may be of some benefit to maintaining strict stereotypical gender roles, but not be forgotten are the costs. These include reducing the opportunities for the girls and boys, carrying on unfairness in the society and ignoring talent. Due to the major influence parents have on the development of gender roles, parents who want to display gender fairness and encourage both their sons their sons and daughters to be their best should adopt an a gender role that is androgynous and foster the same attitude in their children.

Media Influence
Media utilize stereotypes. Magazines, radio, TV and computer software repeatedly show women and men in restricted roles. Importance is placed on mens strength and womens beauty. A good example can be found in Disney movies female characters are pretty and feminine and frequently need rescuing by men. The boys in magazines, movies and TV are portrayed as strong and show little emotion.
   
These gender roles and stereotypes do not serve the equivalent purpose that they did one hundred years ago on the contrary, these views of behavior and sexuality can be more of an impediment than help toward modern society.

3. Describe the way that girls are disadvantaged at school.
According to the International Labor Organization girls are still disadvantaged when it come to education. The organization reports that for every one hundred boys enrolled in school there are ninety four girls, with girls in the rural areas being most disadvantaged. The total enrollment in secondary school in developing land is 57 for girls and 61 for the boys. In less economically developed countries the enrollment is 26 for girls and 32 for the boys. These statistics indicate that in the most part of the developing world a large percentage of girls fail to gain access to education beyond primary level. Girls can often be amongst the last people to be registered and amongst the first when it comes to being removed from schools when a family needs to choose between sending a girl or boy to school. This fact implies that discrimination is a major concern (ilo.org, 2009).
   
A major reason why girls miss school is because they need to contribute to the family income. Cost also poses a major challenge, school fees are still charged in at least some 101 countries. Other barriers to the education of the girl child include violence in schools, conflict, early marriage and HIVAIDS. For example in Nepal, 40 of girls get married by the age of 15. In the Caribbean, girls between the ages 15-19 are infected with HIVAIDS at higher rates than boys. It is estimated that during the 1990s, about 100,000 girls directly took part in conflicts of not less than 30 countries, not to mention the fact that of the worlds 25 million IDPs, the majority are women and children (unesco.org, 2003). The girl childs access to schooling can also be restricted by other issues, for example lack of sufficient sanitation facilities or safety while journeying to school.  Lacking access to good education, girls land in the work force while still way under the minimum employment age, sacrificing their educational participation and success.

4. Compare face-to-face and online support groups
Online support groups provide online help for health problems. Current research indicates that 56,000,000 adult Americans use the online support groups, most of them coming from socio-economically deprived backgrounds and minority groups. These groups are available throughout and one may come and leave at hisher own pleasure, not so with face to face groups. Online support groups allow one to remain anonymous if they wish to, and just read without participating. In an online set up, moderators can remove or alter hurtful and dangerous words and phrases and warning signs can be displayed, this is not possible in a face-to-face setting, once words are spoken the damage is already done.
   
One of the greatest benefits of an online support group is that driving across town or even to a different town is eliminated. Access to enormous amounts of materials and information referred to can be retrieved at the click of a button. Additionally there are records of everyones contributions going back several months. Most importantly, there are billions if not zillions of online support groups, so each individual is free to choose one to suit their personal comfort level. That way people can get the support that they require where they feel most comfortable.
   
Face to face groups offer the warmth and comfort through human contact.  Participating in live group activities makes the experience more enriching. Members of face-to-face groups can exchange medication, supplements and other health foods. When a member of a face-to-face support group really needs help to do something, the support group members will be there to provide support. For instance if a member needs to move, everyone online will support the decision but none of them will be available to help with the packing.

Organizational Psychology

Q4) The Path-Goal Theory
The path-goal leadership theory is a theory that was proposed by an American psychologist Robert House and it postulates that a leader must motivate subordinates by emphasizing the relationship between the subordinates own needs and the organizational goals. In addition, this theory also contends that a leader should clarify and facilitate the path subordinates must take to fulfill their own needs as well as the organizations needs (House, 1971).Clarifying the path may be by giving directives or vague hints. This theory was developed to reconcile prior findings and anomalies resulting from empirical investigations of the effects of leader task orientation and leader person orientation on subordinate satisfaction and performance. The essential notion that underlies the path-goal theory is that individuals in superior positions should be effective to the extent that they compliment the environment that their subordinates work by providing the necessary  cognitive working conditions  in order for them to attain work goals and at the same time experience intrinsic satisfaction .

According to House and Mitchell (1974), there are four types of leadership styles that can be used by a leader depending on the situation on ground and they are as follows.  (a) Supportive leadership-Here the leader creates a friendly working environment considering the need and welfare of the subordinates. It may include increasing self esteem and making the job more interesting for the workers. This style is best used when work is stressful or hazardous. (b)Directive leadership-This includes giving workers directives and appropriate guidance like issuing schedules of specific work to be done at specific times. This style can be used when the task to be done is unstructured and complex and the worker is inexperienced. (c)Participative leadership-this involves consulting workers and taking their ideas into consideration when making decisions and particular actions. It is best used when workers are experts and their advice is needed.(d)Achievement-oriented leadership-Here the leaders set high goals and expect the subordinates to have high level performances. Its best used when the task to be performed is complex. In relation with the dominant leadership paradigm of the time, the path goal theory is primarily a theory of task-person oriented supervisory behavior. It does not concern the leadership of entire oganisations, political behavior of leaders, and strategic leadership of organizations and the emergent informal leadership.

In conclusion the path-goal theory seeks to improve and ensure good leader-worker relationship only emphasizes the issues that affect the workers and their relationship with their seniors hence it does not totally look into any other part of the organization structure.

Q1) Steps in the research process
Hopkins (2009) defines research as any original and systematic investigation that is undertaken in order to increase knowledge and understanding and also to establish facts and principles. It encompasses the creation of new ideas and generation of new knowledge. He also goes ahead to define research as a process of creating new and unique knowledge which is specific to an applied field of study.

Basing on the fact that research is done in systematic manner there are several steps involved before it comes to completion and they involve the following

(a)Topic identification and development-This includes stating the topic of interest. This can be done using the question to which you want to find a solution and after stating, it has to be tested by using the main concept or key words by looking them up in the appropriate background sources.

(b)Finding background information-once the main topic has been identified, one or more sources of background information should be found to help in understanding the broader context of the research. Most common sources are books and general encyclopedias.

(c)Finding books about the topic-Books can be found by searching using keyword, by title and subject.

(d) Finding periodicals-they can be found using online databases obtain articles from magazines, journals and newspapers.

(e)Finding internet resources-This involves use of search engines and a subject directory to locate materials on the web and since information on the internet varies in reliability, Google scholar or encyclopaedia Brittanica online can be used for reliable sources.

(f)Evaluation of findings-This means critically analyzing the information sources you have identified to evaluate the authority and quality of resources that were earlier located.

(g)Citation of the material used-Credit has to be given where it is due by documenting the sources used in the research to allow hose who will read your work to duplicate it and be able to locate the sources. Citations should be given using MLA or APA format bearing in mind that representing other peoples work as yours is plagiarism (Hopkins, 2009).

In conclusion, researches being a systematic process, all the steps described above have to be followed critically in order to come up with a good successful and convincing end result.

Q2) Ways of determining reliability of a test
Reliability refers to the consistency of a test, survey, observation or any other measuring device. Normally a test is considered reliable if it gives the same results repeatedly. for example if a given test is designed to measure a certain trait, then each time the test is administered to a subject the results should be approximately the same. Although it is impossible to calculate reliability exactly, there are possible ways of estimating it two of which are discussed below (Kendra, 2010).

(a)Test-retest reliability. To gauge reliability, the test is administered twice at two different points in time and this is normally used to assess the consistency of a test across time. This type of reliability test assumes that there will be no change in the quality being measured. This method is best used for things that are stable over time like intelligence and reliability will always be higher when little time has passed between tests. If a test is administered twice and the same results are obtained, then the reliability coefficient will be 1.0.The correlation of measurements across time will normally be less than perfect due to different experiences and attitudes that respondents will have encountered the time of the first test. The test-retest method is a simple way of determining reliability but it is costly and impractical (Key, 1997).

(b)Inter-rater reliability. This type of reliability is assessed by having two or more independent people (raters) to score the given test after which the scores are compared to determine the consistency of the raters estimates. One way to carryout this test is to have each rater assign each test item a score. For example each rater might score items on a scale of 1-10 and then calculate the correlation between the two ratings to determine the level of inter-rater reliability. Another means of testing inter-rater reliability is by having the raters determine which category each observation falls and then calculate the percentage of agreement between the raters. For example if they agree 8 out of 10 times then the test will be said to have an 80 inter-rater reliability (Kendra, 2010).

In conclusion, different methods of testing reliability should be applied in any given test to obtain more accurate results because these methods usually have their disadvantages hence it requires one to use several of them in combination to obtain better results.

Death in Indian and American cultures

Most studies concerning human beings in the context of their culture as for a long time dealt with human death. Matters related to mortality have been given much attention in anthropology. Anthropology is the study of man in association with his culture (Piven, 2004). Human mortality and its rite do reflect the societys values and is also a significant aspect in determining them. The way that death is explained in a society does a lot in shaping the view of life in that society. It is the way a person expects to end that determines how heshe behaves in life. It is a fact that death is inevitable for every person. It is common in every society that every person has to die at a certain age. What differs is the answer to the question of death among societies (Twomey, 2007). Matters concerning death are explained differently by different cultures. This paper is a comparison of death in America and India.

Death in Indian and American cultures
Death matters are related to religion. The most prominent religion in the United States is Christianity while in India it is mostly Islamic and Hindu. The ultimate end of every human being is death. This is universally known across all cultures and across all religions. This is the most common aspect relating to death in America and India. There are other common elements, but they differ with the communities in question. They are common in the two cultures but may vary according to individual societies or people. One of the aspects of death in these two cultures is the belief in reward and punishment (Roppolo  Crow, 2007). The two cultures believe that after death the good people will receive their reward in heaven while the evil will be punished in hell. There is a faction of people in American culture who believe that death is the end and that there will be nothing after it. This is referred to as the state of nothingness. In the Indian society, almost every person believes in life after death. If there are any people who believe that nothing happens after death, they dare not express their views because this would be disrespecting their cultural beliefs. It is worth noting that Indians hold their culture and religious beliefs so dearly. Indians do not believe in the transmigration of souls. Hinduism believes that the departed soul moves through the pretaloka which is the world of spirits and ghosts up to the pitraloka which is the heaven. This is why after death the Hindus performs a lot of rituals. The rituals are believed to be for assisting the departed soul through its long journey (Tillett, 2005). America being a multicultural society has diverse beliefs in issues associated with death. Death in this society has a variety of explanations. Some people take it to mean dwelling in heaven or hell. Death is taken by some other Americans as a state of nothingness. There is yet another faction that believes it to be a transitory state that people enter before they return in another life or in another form (Frykenberg, 2003).

All the cultures believe in the separation of the soul from the body. The souls depart in different manner. Christians believe that the moment a person is dead, the soul leaves the body. The orthodox Muslims believe that when an individual passes on, the angel of death appears. This angel sits at the head of the dead person and talks to hisher soul depending on the character of that person. The souls of the evil people are commanded to leave to the anger of Allah, and the souls of the good people are asked to leave to the compassion of Allah (Piven, 2004).  
 
Americans unlike the Indian culture has gone through a lot of transformations in the views and understanding about death. Religious beliefs in America can be traced back from the puritans. The puritans colonized New England in the 17th century (Joshi, 2006). Back then, the beliefs about death that were held by this group were completely different from what the American society believes presently. The theological branch that dealt with death back then put people in a frightening state in death. The idea of the puritans concerning death was that every persons fate, whether old or young, was to forever dwell in hell. They believed that only a few people who had been chosen by God would go to heaven (Twomey, 2007). This group of people was only known to God. In this case, people had no control over their fate. They were left with no other option but to live a clean life, praying that they would be among the selected few who would see heaven.  Because of this belief, the time of death was the most tormenting time in a persons life. Death was not taken with calmness and acceptance. Due to the fact that there was no assurance of a persons fate after death, even to the most religious people, death was a period of terror and torment. Without knowing whether a person was among the selected few, the thought of burning for ever in hell was unbearable. As a result these people approached their death with doubt, fear and dread (Joshi, 2006).

The key purpose of belief is to provide people with a rough idea on what to expect after death. Most cultures believe that they know what happens to their people when they die. As a result they possess a mental image of where the dead goes and why they die. It a common belief across most cultures that death came up as a result of the fall of man. This is in other words as a result of mans fall from Gods grace. In this case death is everywhere and it is a reminder of Gods authority over his people. It was such belief that was held by the puritans (Joshi, 2006).

As time went by, the belief of the puritans started loosing ground. The community, due to enlightenment, came to realize that it was no use for a person to live a clean life while realizing that they were most likely destined to destruction. This was the cause for the society to do away with the beliefs of puritans. In fact this was the alternative taken by most people in the community. Due to this, people view of life and beliefs concerning death transformed (Joshi, 2006).

By the period of the American Revolution the sanctified view of death had been done away with completely. By the 19th century, the puritan view of death had disappeared completely and its place taken by a more naturalistic view. In this approach, the concern was not more on the dead individual but the immediate family. It is during this period that secularism began to take effect. In America secularism has affected the social values to great extent. It has brought in a lot of changes in the society (Twomey, 2007). This has made death and death-related issues to become less spiritual. Secularism has resulted to death becoming easily avoidable than was possible in the past. Although there were no major changes in the Indian culture concerning death, secularism brought in a few changes. The ritual of visiting graves was done away with. There was also a reduction in the mourning period. There were other simple changes, but the view of death in this culture never changed (Piven, 2004).

Even if Islamic is not the only religion practiced in India it has grown to be one of the most dominant in the region. The work of Islamic religion concerning death is detailed in the kit al-ruh. This can be translated to the book of soul. This book was recorded in the 14th century. According to the Islamic religion, death is predetermined by God. It is Allah who gives people life, decides the length of their life on earth, and decides their death (Tillett, 2005).

In both the American and the Indian culture bodies of the dead are disposed amid rituals. In the American culture the rituals performed are not as diverse as those performed in the Indian culture especially by the Hindus. The Hindu community cremates their dead and in most cases, the ashes are then buried. In American, most of the communities bury their dead. Muslims also bury the dead. It is worth noting that even in the American community, there are those who opt to bury dead people. This is not directed by any cultural belief, but it is directed by personal choice. In both cultures bodies are well prepared for ultimate disposal. In the Muslim community, the body is washed by people who are experienced in this field (Frykenberg, 2003). The body is then wrapped in a white cloth, and then put into the grave. There is usually no viewing of the body, except by the immediate relatives. The participants believe that, by participating in the ceremony, they will rewarded by God. Islam put the dying person facing Mecca (Roppolo and Crow, 2007).
 
In the past, different societies in America believed in contact with the dead. This is a practice that was carried out by spiritualists. In the American society, the development of science affected their view on death (Twomey, 2007). Most scholars and theorists began challenging the idea of god as the giver and ultimate taker of life. In contrast, this idea has never affected Muslims belief on the omnipotent Allah as the giver and taker of life. Science came in with evolution theory as an explanation of where people come from and their ultimate end. This theory is an argument that life evolves constantly. The beliefs of the society concerning death changed with the development of science being in a position to relieve peoples suffering through improved medicine. The development of the germ theory challenged the belief that it was God who caused people to die. In the images of the many who chose to believe in the scientific theory, the place of God as the control of nature was taken up by the scientific explanations. Science brought up an argument that death is not governed by the laws of nature. Therefore as people were in a position to be in command of nature, then they could control mortality as well. The Indian culture even with the development of scientific theories, still holds to the fact that they do not have any control over death (Piven, 2004).

In the 19th century the view of death as a natural occurrence had taken effect. In the American culture, death began to loose its sacred touch in the 19th century continuing up to the current time. Though most Christians and other religious factions in the United States still see death in a religious light, most of the Americans view it as a natural occurrence and when it happens, it does not cause a lot of fuss. Some authors have referred America as a death-rejecting society. Compared to the Indian community, the United States does not take death and the things related to it seriously. The Alaskan Indians have been referred to as death-affirming. This is due to the fact that they are well prepared for it and the moment it comes, every person in the community participates. Proof of American denial to death can be obtained from the Kubler-Ross states. This are practices in the united states of placing their dead in sterile facilities away from everybody. The places where these death people put are normally not visited by anyone, no even friends and relatives. In America death is usually referenced with euphemisms (Cassell, 2005).  No one in the United States is open in discussing death and the dying is avoided even by the relatives. Dead people are usually removed from their beds very fast and put away until when they are collected for burial. Man-made carpeting is utilized to mask the earth at the burial ground. In most cases the bereaved are given mild sedatives so that they do not suffer the pain caused by death of a beloved one. These are all revelations of denial in death (Roppolo and Crow, 2007). This can also be observed in the way the bereaved acts after the death of someone close. The first thing they do mostly is to remove all the items of the dead person so that they are not always reminded of the death. In the Indian culture, there is acceptance and understanding of death. They do not deny it as the Americans do. Death is taken as part of their faith in God. They fully understand that it is the destiny of every one and that it is their religious duty to accept and participate in death-related rites (Twomey, 2007).    

Despite the fact that America is a multiculture society, there has been one uniform aspect as far as death is concerned. Across all cultures in the United States there is the aspect of institutionalizing burials. Unlike other cultures like the Indian, burials in most of the United States have less involvement of the relatives and other members of the society. There is usually the fast removal of the body from the funeral facility, embalming, organized viewing, and speedy burial (Cassell, 2005). All the preparations for the burial are carried out through hired services. In most of the Indian community, the respect and the sacred image of death is still prevalent. In the Indian community, death is viewed as the whole family and society event. There is still the element of the dying person being allowed to see his family and as much as possible given the chance to set things in order before dying. In America, there are facilities like hospices and nursing homes where the dying is isolated as they await their final moments. People here are rarely visited and when this happen, it is usually for a few hours. In India people who are about to die are kept company by relatives and friends who encourages them and assure them that they are not alone. Mourning in the Indian community is a major even where the whole community participates. Various rituals are performed in a systematic way (Piven, 2004).

Conclusion
This paper is a research on the similarities and differences of death in Indian and American cultures. The similarities in the two cultures view of death are brought about by the fact that they both know that death is inevitable. The various processes that reflect the acceptance of death in people is culturally defined thus created the differences in the two cultures. In the Indian society, nothing much has changed in the view and understanding of death. In America on the other hand, since the time of the puritans, a lot has changed in their view and understanding of death. In India religion is part of culture. Death is connected to religious. This is the reason why in India death and issues related to death do not change. America culture on the other hand has become totally separated from religious issues. There is a very big distinction between culture and religion in the United States.

Todays Nightlife on ABC is a Product of Classical and Operant Conditioning

The Classical Conditioning Theory by Ivan Pavlov explains the role of the environment and experiences in stimulating responses that result into learning. In his experimentation with dogs, the dog learnt to salivate at the sound of a bell after several experiences of ringing the bell whenever food was presented. The food was the unconditional stimulus (US) since it could elicit a response (salivation) naturally. The original response produced by the unconditioned stimuli is referred to as the unconditioned response (UR). Eventually, after repeated bearing of food and the sound of a bell, the dogs learnt to associate the bell with food, and started to salivate once it rang even if no food was presented afterwards. In this case, the bell is the conditioned stimuli (CS) a stimulus that elicits a response after association with the unconditioned stimuli. The response caused by such a stimuli (CS) is called the conditioned response (CR). A natural stimulus is one that does not elicit any response.

Operant Conditioning Theory by B.F Skinner posits that some responses are learned because they produced pleasant consequences, rather than because they were associated with an existing stimulus-response connection (Hayes and Orrell, 19). He called it the Law of Effect, since what resulted after a certain behavior either discouraged or reinforced the behavior. For instance, say excellent after a correct answer by a student will reinforce the behavior of answering questions.

A positive reinforcement is one where a certain behavior is rewarded, such as buying a child a gift or prize after posting good academic results. The gift will motivate the student and other learners to work hard. Negative reinforcement takes place when a certain behavior is rewarded by exempting the person from undesirable experiences or activities. For instance, a student who gets to school on time may be excluded from manual work.

Positive punishment occurs when a behavior is discouraged by subjecting the person to undesirable experiences, such as caning. Negative punishment is achieved by denying the person something desirable, e.g. restrictions such as going for break or a walk. Primary reinforcement satisfies the needs of a person immediately, such as giving good grades for hard work. Secondary reinforcement is achieved when something else is associated with the primary reinforcement. For instance, getting a good job is a secondary reinforcement associated with good grades

In human beings, classical conditioning takes place after a desired experience (US) is associated for a time with a another experience not originally desired (CS). With time, people get used with the new experience by associating it with the originally desired experience. For purposes of demonstration, I chose the Nightlife TV program aired by ABC in the US. The program began in November 8 1979, a few days after some Americans were held hostage in Iran, in what came to be popularly known as The Iran Hostage Crisis. By then, NBS was updating Americans daily on the situation. NBS program, the Tonight Show was a primetime hit since the hostage news was a national sensation. After launching the Nightlife, it became very popular as it gave a daily briefing by anchor Tedd Koppel The Iran CrisisAmerica Held Hostage (Bilhartz and Elliot, 232).

However, with time, especially after the 444 days of hostage, Nightlife began featuring other subjects such as politics and celebrity life. Nonetheless, the audience had been already conditioned by the hostage reportage to get hooked to Nightlife, even when the initial attraction (news from Iran) had been removed. Its still a favorite program in most American homes, resisting the effect of time. This is what the conditioning theorists call reinforcements resistance to extinction (Hayes and Orrell, 20), that is, impacting upon a person long after it had ceased.

Eyewitness Memory Accuracy

General Introduction
The topic selected for this report is Eyewitness recollection accuracy. The topic is of exemplary importance because it is one that has practical implications. A research performed in this area serves to contribute to the perception regarding the practice of taking eyewitness testimonies into account during legal proceedings. Needless to highlight, countless cases have been brought to their resolutions after taking eyewitness testimonies into consideration.

The research performed in this area on the other hand, reveals that the accuracy of eyewitness memory retention and recollection is far from accurate. It is because of this reason that there is a need for credible and research in the area that can serve to eliminate this paradox.

Article 1 Introduction
The research in the article addresses the problem or question outlined by attempting to study the legitimacy of eyewitness statements by establishing the degree to which eyewitnesses are able to accurately recall what they have seen (Megreya  Burton, 2008).

This approach is different from most of the previous researches performed in this area because previous researches fundamentally chose to rely on live targets to carry out their experiments while this research chose to make use of photographs instead of live targets (Megreya  Burton, 2008).

Article 1 Hypothesis
The study was designed to test the hypothesis that sought to establish the degree of efficiency with which viewers were able to accurately match photographs to live people under a minimal set of constraints. The variables involved in the study were the targets and the stimuli. The research specifically sought to test the efficiency of photographic to recognize individuals present in person, from their photographs (Megreya  Burton, 2008). This efficiency was measured by presenting participants with opportunities to match individuals present in person with a set of photographs in order to determine the efficiency with which they managed to do so correctly. The result expected from the research was the recording of a broadly low degree of efficiency for face matching abilities, indicating poor performance in memories of eyewitnesses.

Article 1 Method
The research employed three different experiments to test the singular hypothesis. The first experiment entailed the testing of immediate memory and used exposure to static video images, followed by exposure to a line-up of 10 faces in which only one was the same as the one shown in the static video image five seconds earlier. The second method removed the five second gap and the targets and the line-up and target images were put forth simultaneously (Megreya  Burton, 2008). This was followed by the third method in which the participants were provided with pairs of faces some of which were identical while others bore little or no resemblance. The purpose of all three experiments was to test the face processing system in order to test the hypothesis.

Article 1 Results
The result from the first experiment held that there was no difference between the accuracy of the recognition in photographed and live targets. Efficiency levels for both target-present and target-absent testing procedures were found to be considerably low. Participants performed poorly in identifying the faces even thought the setting was one that gave them an optimal environment (Megreya  Burton, 2008). The results from the second experiment showed that the participants were unable to positively recognize photographs even though they were present in optimal conditions. The third experiment asserted that the degree of accuracy to which individuals can match a real person to a photograph is the same as that of matching two photographs.

Article 1 Conclusion
The research concluded that the presence of a live target has no positive implications on positive identification and misidentifications were frequent. The research, through its multiple experiments, also concluded that the overall procedure of the encoding of unfamiliar faces is riddled with difficulty (Megreya  Burton, 2008). At this point, the research established its stance as one which agreed with former researches that had reported low accuracy rates.

It is essential to note that the research, in its first experiment, made use of a very brief time interval between exposure to target and the test array. This makes it considerably different from a real-world situation in which the interval can span well over hours. Also, the experiment did not take any other real-world variables into account (Megreya  Burton, 2008). While no considerable drawbacks were established for the second experiment, the third experiment incorporated the drawback of possibly incorporating bias in its findings. The key question that went unanswered in the research was the degree to which the difference between laboratory settings and reality differ and the implications that the differences have.

Article 2 Introduction
The research in the article addresses the subject outlined in your general introduction through a series of three experiments (Fiedler, Kaczor, Haarmann, Stegmuller,  Maloney, 2009). Each of these experiments was meant to acquire a better understanding of how eyewitness recollection can be stimulated through re-contextualization and a supporting of the ability to discriminate between seemingly similar targets.

The approach is not too different from other researches because it attempts to explore the subject of the study through a multi-experiment approach, which appears to be customary in the case of studies exploring eyewitness recollection accuracy.

Article 2 Hypothesis
The research considers the hypothesis that eyewitnesses tend to exercise a leniency bias that causes them to correctly identify just as many targets as they incorrectly identify. The study also hypothesizes that participants tend to negatively identify targets in a majority of the scenarios (Fiedler, Kaczor, Haarmann, Stegmuller,  Maloney, 2009). The variables considered by the study include those such as time interval between the incident and the recognition test, the feedback, the emotional status of the eyewitness, the presence of racial or ethnic bias in the eyewitnesses perceptions.

The study specifically aims to test the social-cognition approach to the memory of eyewitnesses. The research claims that many few studies in the past have done so and sets this as its focus in the earlier paragraphs of the study (Fiedler, Kaczor, Haarmann, Stegmuller,  Maloney, 2009). This measurement was made through three differing yet related experiments, each of which was designed to probe into the subject of the research through a relatable yet unique perspective.

Article 2 Method
The first experiment made use of a slide show that was synthetically composed in an attempt to generate a scenario incorporating numerous people in movement. Several recognition tests were carried out through exposure to numerous targets. A total of eighty research participants were used (Fiedler, Kaczor, Haarmann, Stegmuller,  Maloney, 2009). The second experiment incorporated almost the same fundamentals as the first experiment but entailed a drastic increase in the number of possibilities. The third experiment moved away from the sequence that the research had been following in the first and second experiments. The third experiment exposed participants to elements such as late impressions and the cognitive interview, both of which were designed to assess whether an improvement change occurred in the eyewitnesses recollection.

Article 2 Results
It was observed as a result of the first experiment that explicit memory is influenced considerably as a result of impression formation (Fiedler, Kaczor, Haarmann, Stegmuller,  Maloney, 2009). It was observed as a result of the first experiment that explicit memory is influenced considerably as a result of impression formation.

Article 2 Conclusion
The research concluded that former researches in the area of eyewitness memory and recollection hold weight since it was revealed that formation of impression stimulates accurate recollection (Fiedler, Kaczor, Haarmann, Stegmuller,  Maloney, 2009). The research also concluded that the augmentation of an impression-formation task serves to bring about a dramatic increase in the accuracy of the eyewitnesses recollections. The authors brought the research to a conclusion by highlighting the need for further research and elaborating on the increased severity of the variables in real world circumstances as opposed to a controlled laboratory setting. The findings of the research experienced limitations in terms of the absence of a theoretical explanation behind the cognitive processes. The researchers also present numerous questions as recommendations for further research towards the end of the article.

General Discussion
It is apparent from the details of the two articles discussed above that eyewitness memory comes across as a rather weak instrument to consider reliable when taking testimonies from eyewitnesses. Of the two articles chosen, one was a recent research while the second served to provide a comprehensive view of the body of research that is present. Both the studies showed that eyewitness memory is far from reliable. It was observed that eyewitness recollections are inaccurate in optimal research conditions and can therefore be expected to be even worse in real-world scenarios.

Couple Marriage Interview

The marriage interview was conducted on a couple that lives in my neighborhood and requested to remain anonymous while committing complete sincerity to the exercise. The purpose of the marriage interview was to explore the manner in which a couple runs into complications and to comprehend how underlying causes contribute to changes in the relationship while exploring the concepts of psychology that apply to the case. The interview was conducted by making the participating couple sit on a wide sofa in a comfortable sitting room. The couple had been married for almost nine years now and both the husband and the wife were in their mid thirties.

The interview began by asking each of them about the qualities that they had always desired in hisher spouse (Feldman, 1996). It was observed that both of them were in unanimous agreement about wanting commitment, honesty, affection, reliability and intimacy from each other. However, the unity in the answers came forth as short-lived when each was asked how long heshe had expected it to last when they got married. In this case, the wife expressed doubts about how long the marriage was going to last while the husband sat in a bit of awe to the response of the wife. When asked why she was doubtful, she replied that she had always been a little scared of marriage and the extensive commitment it entailed.

The couple has two children and the next question inquired upon was whether or not having children had put strain on their marriage. It was observed that the husband considered some strain to have dawned on the marriage while the wife held a positive outlook about the children and their implications on the marriage.

The couple was then asked about the part of their marriage that they appreciate the most. The husband and the wife were somewhat romantic in response to this question as the wife mentioned the warmth her husbands arms and the husband mentioned her beautiful smile that gave him a reason to struggle in his life. It was evident that whatever the reasons, the setup allowed them to maintain considerable affection towards each other.

The couple was also asked about how they handle problems and arguments. It was observed that there was a bit of a conflict between them in this regard since the husband stated that he usually apologizes no matter whose mistake it is while the wife stated that she generally chooses to forget everything that happened and take him back.

The couple was asked about their perception of a typical marriage. They replied that a typical marriage in these times has mutated into a form where it is more a resort and less of a marriage. They were unanimous in the denouncing of the increasing frequency of divorce and stated that they considered such marriages to be of no use and that couples who think that there are chances for divorce within a few years of their marriage should not get married to begin with. It was evident that the areas they disagreed on served to strengthen the relationship between the couple (Booth, Crouter,  Clements, 2001).

In order to probe further, the couple was asked to consider a hypothetical situation in which they had divorced. They were asked to determine what they would lose in case a divorce took place under such a worst case scenario. The husband and the wife looked stricken with shock at the very question and refused to answer the question, requesting that I move on to the next question. It was inferred from this particular response that the couple, under unanimous consent, chooses to remain in a self-induced state of denial about the possibilities of divorce.

The husband and the wife both expressed a fear of the family and friends of their spouse. Both expressed that they held a strong desire to be acknowledged by their spouses family and friends when they had begun their relationship. The desire to be accepted was observed to be a strong one in this case.

In order to determine differences within the couple, they were then asked about their favorite parts of the marriage. While the husband and wife both agreed upon physical intimacy, the husband added elements such as having a wife to come home to and watching television with the children. For the wife, other elements included those such as watching the children learn and grow and conversations with the husband after he arrives home from work. It is apparent that while each appears to have a differing in this case, they are actually on the same page.

The couple interview served to show that remarkable differences between couples can exist even if they have been married for years (Gurman, 2008). In addition, disagreements are frequently settled by resorting to unanimously agreed upon states of denial. When a couple is faced with potential threats to marriage, they tend to find grounds on which they can put aside differences and disagreements in order to sustain and maintain their marriage. This is valid mostly in cases where the husband and the wife find a reason to stay together, such as the children in this case.