Animal Consciousness

From the times of Aristotle the subject on Animal Consciousness has been discussed till today. Aristotle thought that animals cannot think like humans because of this reason they were considered as lesser to humans. Consciousness is defined as awareness of ones own internal and external feelings of himself. Although they are awake about some organisms most of the times they are unaware. If they are aware like us they have to be treated like humans with rights etc. Many psychologists thought that behavior comes as natural to animals like human beings. If we have to say usually the human are the ones who had power over all kinds of animals from to dog to lion (Nieman, n.d).

Two types of consciousness intelligence 1.This type of consciousness intelligence comes when the living thing is alert. The other comes when the living thing got the intelligence of reorganization in that they react according to the environment. The third most consciousness intelligence is access consciousness is introduced by the Block (1995).He thought that every animal posses the access consciousness without necessity of speech.

There two there are two types of consciousness intelligence other than the above
1. Phenomenal consciousness        
2. Self-consciousness.

In Phenomenal consciousness they only know about the other kind of species living in same environment .It refers to knowledge of consciousness. Humans got the ability to see and to feel what is to be like other animal but not in animals because they got a less no of neurons (Ginsburg  Jablonka 2007).

Self-consciousness means the psychological state of ones own mind means thought about thought. This is familiar with theory of mind .Any non humans dont have the power over the control the mind of the others (Animals).

Dualism According to the dualists the consciousness is an undefined basic element in the bodily universe and it cannot be decreased according to the bodily philosophy. Cartesian dualism agrees the animals dont have mental states. But Descartes explanation based on incapability of the animals to speak normally. But at present any type of dualist cannot confirm that the no animal has got the awareness. Dennett didnt believe in Cartesian theory and also didnt approve that animals got the intelligence.
Physicalist account Physicalist accounts are based upon results of philosophicality that specifying the intelligence with undetermined material possessions. This believes that humans and all are made up of same elements.

Neuron physical accounts Few philosophers believe that changes in the neurons especially in sensory context of the brain which is responsible for storing the information made the differences between humans and animals.

Representational accounts  It is very familiar with phenomenal consciousness .First order representation believes that that some parts of the illustration used to store the information about the external world if it has in animals then it is phenomenally conscious about that.

Higher  order theories
This theory comes from the disappointment of the first order theory. Carruthers HOT means higher order thought is the about the conscious about the thought (Carruthers 1998a,b, 2000)..Caruthers believe that non humans doesnt have minds like of humans even in the most great apes like chimpanzee and they a very little to sustain.

Other theorists like Arm strong supported that higher order theory in requisites with internal knowledge of the mind along with Aristotle which means they lack minds (Shah, 2010).

Aristotle believed animals were incapable of reason, but some philosophers and scientists still cannot agree on one coherent view of animal awareness. Arguments in support of animal awareness are relatively recent, and emerging scientific evidence comes closer and closer to fully supporting these arguments. There is evidence that animals are aware, from bacteria and earthworms to chimpanzees.

Arguments for animal consciousness
Similarity arguments Some ordinary observers made judgments on similarity between human and animal behavior. The animal reactions and events that humans report as painful are mechanically recognized by a lot of people as pain responses. The common mammalian responses to harmful stimuli are fear responses, high pitched vocalization, learned avoidance, nursing of injuries. Irresistible evidence shows that animal brains elaborate many states of affective consciousness. There is no ultimate evidence from science but some relevant evidence from Neuroethological studies evoking the same emotional behavior from the same animal brain analogs, behavioral reinforcement studies, ubiquitous emotional vocalizations and coherent translations between human and animal psychopharmacological work.

In 2001, Likewise reviewing the behavioral and neural evidence for consciousness in animals According to this a subjective consciousness is basically identical in mammals and humans. A neurological similarity also suggests commonality of consciousness experience between animals and humans (Angelfire, n.d).

David Hume proclaimed that no truth appears to be more evident, than that beast is endowed with thought and reason as well as men. Hume argued that animals closely resemble the behaviors of human beings which are caused by associations among ideas.

The cumulative argument for animal consciousness
The belief in animal awareness is part of the commonsense view of the world. Ordinary language talking by animals is not strained that implies that they have mental life. Hebb writes give a record on actual behavior of adult chimpanzees this record gives the objective statement of differences from animal to animal. Gareth B. Matthews an American philosopher and his staff found that one animal was faithful, another nervous, and a third shy, and they characterized that one is friendly to human beings, another to hate human beings (Regan, 2004).

Arguments against animal consciousness
Dissimilarity arguments
Descartes argues against animal consciousness that the animals do not use any language conversationally. Suppose this argument rose due to the failure of animals in showing some thinking capacities and it is exemplified by using certain dissimilarities between animals and humans to argue about the lack of consciousness of animals. In the situation of getting partial information, a general desist absence of evidence is not evidence of absence is saying. Further Descartes says vocalizing of parrots is just meaningless recurrence, but this opinion exposed with out any systematic and scientific examination of the aptitudes of parrots.

Similarity arguments
To reject the animal consciousness one type of strategy has been in use is to focus on assured similarities between the behavior of animals and the unconscious human beings behavior. Consequently Carruthers (1989, 1992) argues that all animals behave like unconscious humans with examples of driving while abstracted, the capacities of blindsight patients. Carrutherss argument which is based on comparison of unconscious humans behavior and animals behavior is like the unsystematic observation of animal behavior which is proposed by Descartes. There is no evidence to normal limitations of animals (Jamieson  Bekoff 1991).

Arguments from the absence of self-consciousness
Carruthers (1998a,b, 2000) argued that the animals do not have self-consciousness also. Gordon Gallup (1970) describes after examine of chimpanzees through mirror self-recognition test, chimpanzees are self-aware. Gallup et al. (2002) opinioned about the connection between the theory of mind and self awareness as If you are self-aware then you are in a position to use your experience to model the existence of comparable processes in others. Success of the test on chimpanzees gave some grounds to maintain that the animals are astoundingly conscious. The attempts to give proof of theory of mind in animals were failed to produce exact evidence.

Methodological arguments
Several scientists are persuaded even the questions regarding self-consciousness are empirically dutiful and any experiment could not allow to exceptional consciousness in animals. But some times scientists behaves as dualists once they are sturdily devoted to rejecting the opportunity of scientifically examining consciousness and another time they remain uncertain of all attempts to bring it into the scientific mainstream (Shah, 2010).

However, similarity arguments break down when the similarities and dissimilarities relate to two completely kinds of evidence. In this case, the similarities and dissimilarities can no longer be weighed up against each other and are thus incommensurable.

Animals may or may not the got the awareness, humans have to treat the animals with good care and protection but as slaves. Similarity arguments based on behavior cannot establish the occurrence of conscious feelings in animals when there is conflicting neurological evidence. Many members argued against the animal consciousness with grounds of similarities and dissimilarities between the nonhuman animals and humans and base of the absence of self consciousness of animals. Some methodological arguments also rose against the animal consciousness.


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