Philosophy of Fallacy

Newspaper articles present a wide range of arguments. After enlisting the various Pakistani links with global terror in the recent years, the article Terrorism and the economy published in the Dawn on 6.1.2010 uses as a premise the global isolation of the country and the failure of the international community to address the issues with grit and character as causes that may lie behind Pakistan becoming a hub of terrorist activities. As a strategy to come out of it, the author employs deductive argument isolation leads to escalated terrorist activities (the article implies it by stating the reverse), deduces that Pakistan is isolated, and concludes that further isolation would do it enormous damage.

An example of concluding signal word is found in the argument presented in This is the age of war among generations, author Anatole Kalestsky in a well prepared argument delving into the causes of the Greek economic crisis and the question of pensioners and retirees, clinches his second argument of reform with the help of the signal word as a result. The premise is that baby boomers are too numerous for politicians to ignore them, and older people are more likely to vote. The conclusion is that, this increasing number of pensioned retirees will hold democracies across the world hostage to their interests. The concluding signal word is as a result.

An example of introductory signal word for a premise can be seen in the article Prudential Shareholders in rebellion by Patrick Hosking. All power to their elbow, where he begins his premise with the signal word because, The rebellion was all the more remarkable because the Pru had taken the precaution of hiring many of the Square Miles most influential investment bankers as advisers, and then goes on to develop this argument.

An example of inductive argument can be seen at the conclusion of the same article. The premise states that The closure of guaranteed final-salary style pension schemes means millions of pension fund members are no longer insulated from the poor investment decisions of their agents. Reckless strategic decisions made by companies today mean smaller retirement incomes tomorrow, and then uses the specific case in its support that Last Friday, a senior executive from Standard Life stood up at HSBCs annual shareholder meeting and publicly rebuked the board for its overgenerous pay arrangements.
The seven logical fallacies include fallacy of accident, affirming the consequent, irrelevant Conclusion, denying the antecedent, begging the question, fallacy of false cause and fallacy of many questions (Tigert 241).


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