Philosophy of science

In philosophy science induction method is the way in which things are determined from concrete to abstract levels. More specifically, induction refers the method in philosophical science in which things are determined from their simple levels to more complex levels. Basing on this therefore it is important determine whether induction will be applicable to confirm that emeralds are green always but never grue. This confirmation as why induction can be used to make such judgments and argue as philosophers that green emeralds  can never be grue is much based on scientific testing other than just a mere exclamations (Goodman 25-43).  

The induction that concludes that all emeralds are green is more compelling than the induction that concludes that all emeralds are grue is based on Goodmans arguments. In his work, Goodman came to realize that, if grue and bleen are in use as primitives, then it can be easier to define green as grue if initially we had observed before time t that bleen has not been green. According to Goodman the acceptability of these deductions on the definition of green and its interrelationship with grue to determine verily the color of the emeralds is based on the concrete facts that are first at hand which would further be followed by various scientific tests and experimentations (Stalker 75-92).

To be able to solve the paradox and come up with better resolutions that are defendable, Goodman argued that, if the emeralds are grue this statement is not independently a predicate of emeralds but of the emeralds and the time span it takes. More precisely the color of the emeralds can best be known to be green without knowing the time at the moment but only that it is not possible to know the color of the grue at the current time. In fact, when such a case happens, it is expected that, the emeralds are not grue and for this to remain as the truth as time changes (Goodman 25-43).

Nevertheless, there usually arises many questions out such inductions on the statement that, emeralds are considered green does not come out to predicate of the current time, a condition usually referred as simple induction with no regard to the time span. In this case actually, the most popular definition of green requires no mention or regard to time factor and observation for some period but the distinction definition more based on scientific tests and rigorous experimentations. In this perspective therefore the implications of the emeralds as green but not grue is much of deduction but not merely based on time factor (Wolpert 76-89).

More so the objection by Karl Popper that green should be defined with reference to grue and bleen by differentiating the two on the basis of how testing and experimentation can be used to determine the applicability of predicate in certain cases and also the fact that the two implications must distinguished both qualitatively and locationaly. This is to mean that qualitatively, the two characteristics have to be differentiated in terms of their constituents while locationally the two characteristics have to be differentiated in terms of their variations in locations. Shinbone, who is a social scientist, succeeds in distinguishing between the qualitative and locational predicates in which he asserts that, qualitative predicates can be assessed without momentous spatial or chronological relation with instance (Goodman 25-43).

Based on this statement therefore, green emeralds can be argued to be assessed without knowing their spatial or temporal relation of the emeralds to a particular place, time or an event. On the other hand, locational predicates in which we have grue as an example whose assessment is impossible without knowing their particular places or temporal relationship of the emeralds with time, place or an event. In such a case, this will be determined depending on the time the emeralds were observed in which the induction method will thus apply in asserting that the emeralds are green but not grue (Kripke 35-42).
In this perspective therefore, the emeralds are argued to be green which seems compelling than the induction that the emeralds are grue in which case as it has been observed depends with time and location in which such assertions are being made. As it has been observed, the green emeralds can be defined in terms of locational predicates grue in which this is irrelevant to the assumption that green meets the qualification of being qualitative predicate but grue is merely defined on locational basis (Kripke 35-42).

Further, it was asserted that, if the emeralds were in a scientific examination, for them to satisfy the condition of being green both on locational and qualitative predicates but yields different predictions that conflict one the two conditions are considered, then it would be conferred that, the emeralds are absolutely green. Conversely, if the emeralds were examined over time t in which they will appear green or another different color, the qualitative predicate shall be proffered in which case the emeralds will be relatively green or otherwise. More specifically, it can be inductively argued that, the emeralds as they were first observed after time t, in which this conclusion of the emeralds being either green or grue was dependant on time t. (Goodman 25-43).

As it has been inductively asserted, the future emeralds will assume a green color as it would also be in the next couple of time such that, the argument of the emeralds being green will be more compelling than the induction that concludes that, all emeralds are grue which to an extent seems contradictory of the exposure of time and quality variables (Stalker 75-92).

Most often, it has been popularized that, the concept of the emeralds being green has been almost contradictory in that, the emeralds seem to be grue if they are green when examined along time in which afterwards the induction can be generalized thereafter. Conversely to that, various versions still seem to set out other assertions in which the emeralds appear green or blue at various times in which at such cases the arguments seem to contradict with each other. As it has been observed over time, various original definitions of whether the emeralds are either green or grue which depends the time the object was observed first (Kripke 35-42).

Originally, most of the philosophical scientists, who presented facts and forecasts like Goodman who said that if the emeralds are grue then this would apply to the other predicates which were examined before time t and just incase they are green. For more clarifications this assertion was later modified by other, philosophers in which most of their concentrations was on the time factor. These assertions are best described when considerations are more emphasized on the time factors and quality values as well (Goodman 25-43).

As Goodman argued, the emeralds thus far observed to be green were a more compelling assertion than to say that they were grue in which case time factor and quality relevance were the main factors to consider while making the assertions. According to his arguments the prospects of the green emeralds observed seemed to take that color up to far future as he discovered on the argument that, a span of time t has to pass for any alteration to take any effect concerning the color of the emeralds (Goodman 25-43).

More so Goodman observed that, all the emeralds which were examined were also grue on the basis of quality. This is a scientific contradiction of the color of the emeralds in which, this color to be clarified then an inductive study of the emeralds was necessary and thereafter conclusions were to be made. More specifically what was important in the study was to determine and argue for the green color of the emeralds being more compelling than the grue color of the emeralds in which an inductive procedure for determining the two conditions were necessary (Goodman 25-43).

In conclusion therefore, as Goodman argued the green emeralds as they were observed were determined by time t and also sovereign predicate of  the emeralds. One most important consideration was that, the assertion the emeralds are green which is more compelling than asserting that the emeralds are grue has to consider differently, both qualitative and locational predicates. In this perspective therefore, qualitative predicate whose good example is green which is determined by space while locational predicates like grue in which it is determined by the location of the emeralds, will definitely lead to the generalization that, the emeralds are green.


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