Ethics of Engineering

It is an argument because it has thesis and counter-thesis. Moreover, the information presented is valid, plausible and has a specific premise. Moreover, the argument can be analysed through the use of statistical approach.

Relationship between risk and safety
Risk can be defined in many different versions basing on the specified use and situational context. It can simply means the future negative circumstances that can be prevented or mitigated, rather than day to day that calls for immediate attention. When it comes to risk management, the word hazard can be used to define a situation that would lead to harm while the word risk would mean a probability of anything occurring. This concept was applied at planning of delta works in the nineteenth century, which is a flood preventing project in western country. The type of risk analysis is now common in sites like chemical industry and nuclear power. Determining engineering risk is somewhere hard especially in industries where there is production of toxic materials. The way forward to measure individual life cost caused by the loss differs basing on the aim or purpose. Most measures entail what individuals are able to give to insure against death (National Academy of Engineering  National Academies Press (US), 2004).

Categories of risk
-financial risk is mostly termed as the unplanned variability of returns which covers bad-than-unplanned as well as good-than-desired returns. Basing on statistics risk is always placed to the probability of a number of outcomes that are mostly undesirable (Morse  Babcock, 2009). Often the probability of the event and various assessment of its perceived harm need to be joined into a believable outcome, which joins a group of risk, regret and pay probabilities in a desired value for that same outcome. Risk is therefore assessed as a task of three variables namely - the probability that there might be a negative warning, the presence of vulnerability and finally potential improvement in business. The first two probabilities are joined together and sometimes called likelihood, if any of the named variables above almost results to zero, the whole risk results to zero.

Risk can further be defined as a state of lacking complete certainty where a number of possibilities entail a loss or various unexpected outcome.

Measurement of risk a group of possibilities with which each has a quantified probability and quantified losses

From the text above it is vital for one to have uncertainty with no risk but not have risk without uncertainty. People can be uncertain concerning who will be the winner in a contest but unless they hold individuals stake in it, they hold no risk (Martin  Schinzinger, 2005). If people bet some finances on the results of the contest, then it is true they have a risk. In this similar occurrences there are different outcome. The value of uncertainty only defines the probabilities kept for outcomes, as the calculation of risk calls for the two outcomes that is probability and quantified (National Academy of Engineering  National Academies Press (US), 2004).

Insurance and heath risk - insurance is a type of risk lowering investment whereby the customer gives some agreed amount to be safer incase a negative issue arises. In this way, the customer will be so sure a loss has not occurred. Buying a lottery ticket is a high-risk investment with a possibility of minimal reward but with a high chance of getting a loss (Moriarty, 2008). Banking some funds at a specific rate of interest is also taking a risk although the return is less but guaranteed. Some risks like in individuals health could be minimized through primary prevention habits that lowers early occurrence of diseases or by secondary avoidance habits once an individual has been exposed to early symptoms and signs that could be a risk factor. Tertiary avoidance lowers the negative outcome of a disease that is already established by minimizing illness- associated complication and restoring the functions. Every medical professional needs clear discussions about risk factors with an individual client to acquire informed consent concerning tertiary and secondary avoidance efforts however the entire medical health efforts in primary avoidance needs education of the public group at risk (Martin  Schinzinger, 2005). In each circumstance, excellent communication concerning any risk factors, predicted results and certainty should differentiate between causal circumstances that need to be reduced and associated circumstances which might be consequences rather than causes (Baura, 2006).

It can be defined as a situation of being secure, out of danger injury or risk or in other terms, it means events that call to lower or do away with hazardous situations that can lead to injury of the body.

Categories of safety
Occupational safety - it is mainly based with risks in locations where individuals work that is in building and construction, business industries and organizations.

public safety - it deals with hazards in premises, journeys, touring and recreation, and in other various circumstances which is not within the category of occupational safety

Marketing safety - this entails security in purchasing of goods and even in producing. One must be sure the services offered will not lead to a negative outcome (Baura, 2006). On the other hand, the producers themselves should not risk in making a loss for this can cause the closure of a business.

Insurance risk - this avoids a great loss in business or in individuals investment incase an accident or an injury arises, that means the owner is secured.

In case of an accident, it is always advisable to analyze the employees status of safety measures, which could be affected by outward working environment, attitudes directed to security and accident avoidance work and also leaders commitment in security promotion. Such kind of factors could be linked to work stress and risk behavior. The perceived risk behavior affects negative outcomes like accidents and near misses, while the possibility that discourages improvement in transforming a persons risk perception towards embracing safety is still not yet clear.

Competent verses incompetent
A competent engineer is one whose work is recommendable and excellent he evaluates, assesses and organizes the employees to work with an aim of meeting the companys goals and objectives. He works under minimal supervision from the seniors, seeks for advice in times of difficulty and consults other professionals to add skills and knowledge (Harris et al 2008). Unlike incompetent engineer who might have no knowledge of his work and his end results after working are disgusting. Maintaining a competent engineer could be challenging unlike the incompetent one.

A good engineer has most of the qualification required in his area of assignment works well to produce excellent results while a good person is generally pleasing and manifests good characters but may be lacking qualifications in his work (National Academy of Engineering  National Academies Press (US), 2004). A person may be competent but lacks good morals this can be evidenced by most of the employers who employ workers on condition to get something in return. This is mostly happening in the modern world where most competent individuals have no integrity or character.

In conclusion, it is better to risk taking an action despite of the unknown results rather than being safe in a condition whose guaranteed results are negative for example banking money to gain small interest instead of keeping it with you.


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