Fallacies of Philosophy

Common Fallacies False Fallacies Misidentified Fallacies
The first group of fallacies is false fallacies. These are generally referred to as mis-identified fallacies. A fallacy primarily is an argument declared to be mistaken or false as it does not qualify its assertions with truthful or provable assertions. Additionally, it is also thought to be false as it neither relies on logic nor is it a valid type of reasoning leading to a right conclusion. Individuals that commit these fallacies look over an argument, whereupon they then attempt to disqualify the said argument by pointing out what are common fallacies. Despite this fact, many types of arguments ruled on by philosophers, concluded as fallacies only appear to be fallacies.The identification of an argument as a common fallacy is not enough to qualify the assertion that such an argument which tends to follow the form of the fallacy is necessarily wrong.

Ad Hominem
In ad hominem as a fallacy in an argument, it links the validity of a premise to a belief or characteristic trait of the individual advocating the premise (Walton 2008). The ad hominem argument is a fallacy out of the fact that there are fallacious instances of the argument. These are presented below.

Individual 1 makes claim Y
There is something objectionable Individual 1
Therefore claim Y is false

Equivocation is regarded both as an informal fallacy as well as a formal fallacy. Primarily, one who commits a fallacy by equivocation uses a term misleadingly. The individual in this instance uses a term with multiple meanings whereupon he or she glosses over the meaning intended at a specific time. The said individual uses puns with words that sound alike as well as metaphors. Additionally, such an individual also uses syllogism in his or her fallacious reasoning.

Ad Verecundiam
Another common fallacy is referred to as Ad Verecundiam which primarily implies an appeal to authority.  Ad Verecundiam is said to be a fallacy out of the fact that there is no real or true authority. Despite this fact, this argument comes across as circular to be made by an individual, out of the fact that the individual attempts to make himself an authority in the event that he invents his fallacy lists and logic rules that he obliges others to adhere to. In the event that the individual does not permit others to appeal to authority, it is logical that he cannot purport an argument to be wrong by asserting that the argument does not adhere to the individuals own authoritative list of rules. As such, the action of rebuffing the right to appeal to authority to other individuals is simply not logical at all. It is thus apparent that not all arguments that have this authoritative appeal can be concluded to be correct. This is because a supposed authority may certainly be wrong. Nonetheless, there is nothing inherently wrong with relying on an authority. Additionally, it is not right to state that all appeals to authority ought to be concluded to be illogical. Worth noting is that this is all dependent on the truth of the authority an individual is appealing to. In meaning, conjecture and inference are completely exclusive because unlike conjecture which has the basis of its qualification on invalid or questionable assumptions, inference on the other hand is based on valid assumptions. Just as appeal to authority is not inherently wrong, making inferences as well can not be concluded to be wrong. All these are dependent on the truthfulness as well as reliability of the authority.

Slippery Slope
Another fallacy is slippery slope. This is concluded to be a fallacy as wild results or conclusions are presupposed to be disallowed by individuals, although such results are either not necessarily as a result of the prior premise or outwardly unlikely. Slippery slope hires if-then relationships with causal connections that are not absolutely certain, as in the case of deductive logic.

Name calling
A fallacy can also be committed by name calling. In debate, this is said to be unfair. Name calling is similar to an attack on the person instead of the argument (an Ad hominem attack). It is a truth universally agreed that truth stands on its own whereupon this truth can be spoken by individuals of questionable character.  Attacks on ones character can be totally irrelevant to the validity of an argument that is being presented.

The seventh fallacy is composition. A fallacy of composition comes about when an individual deduces the occurrence of an event to be true as a holistic fact as opposed to truthfulness in part. A good example could be when an individual makes a conclusion based on the below syllogism.
All cows produce milk.

First premise
Mr. Kerrys has a cow.      

Second Premise
Mr. Kerrys cow produces milk                      

The conclusion above is fallacious in that Mr. Kerrys cow can be infertile and thus incapable of giving birth and producing milk.


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